Friday, November 28, 2008
Wednesday, November 26, 2008
LB 023-025T 勝芬
Chapter 1- V. Relationship between Form and Behavior
When the term learning theory is used, it is ordinarily applied to universal aspects of learning. Psychologists who concern themselves with such theories point out sometimes that there are some aspects of behavior to which the theories do not apply, as, for instance, the swallowing mechanisms in pigeons, the peculiarities of a buzzard’s flight, or the phonetic differences between meowing and barking. These phenomena are considered to be appropriate subjects for the biologist but not for the behaviorist. The distinction between biological and psychological aspects of behavior may be possible in certain instances, particularly in behavioral phenomena observed in laboratory experiments, but in many more instances there is no way of telling whether a given phenomenon ought to be explained (or investigated) in terms of psychological or biological mechanisms. We have criticized this distinction throughout this chapter, but we must add one more reason for abolishing the distinction.
當我們提及「學習理論」(Learning theory) ，通常講得是universal aspects of learning學習的世界觀。心理學家涉及這些理論時，Psychologists who concern themselves with such theories有時候會指出這些理論不適用於there are some aspects of behavior一些動物行為當中，例如：鴿子吞嚥的機制；鵟鷹 鷲buzzard鳥飛行的獨特性；或是貓叫和狗吠聲韻phonetic上的不同。這些現象恰如其分的被視為生物學家研究的appropriate subjects for the biologist but not for the behaviorist課題，而非行為學家。動物行為在生理層面和心理層面的差別，或許在某些情況中能有所區別The distinction … may be possible in certain instances, particularly in behavioral phenomena observed in laboratory experiments，但在many more instances大部分的狀況裡，我們無法單there is no way of telling whether a given phenomenon ought to be用生理結構或心理mechanisms結構來解釋(或研究)某種現象。我們已經在整個章節中批評此種區別，但我們仍必須再加上一項屏除此種區別的理由。
It is often thought that behavior which is executed by or is dependent upon a peculiar structure typical of a certain type of animal must therefore be biologically based. The grasping movements of an elephant are of no particular relevance to learning theory; they are said to be species-specific and biological! A corollary to this kind of reasoning is that the absence of a special structure or organ should be a criterion for the psychological nature of the behavior. Thus it has been pointed out time and again that man has evolved no special organ for speech, the implication being that we are simply making use of the organs for eating and breathing in our efforts to communicate. This is seriously offered as evidence for the arbitrary, learned, artifactual nature of language.
我們通常會認為It is often thought that behavior which某種特定的行為，是依賴某種特定生物的獨特構造所操控，must therefore be biologically based因此和生物學脫不了干係。大象抓握的動作和學習理論沒有特別的關係，他們說這就是species-specific and biological物種特性和生物本能。這種推論的必然結果，就是absence of a special structure or organ特殊構造或器官應該當作a criterion for the psychological nature of the behavior行為的自然心理標準。因此，人類物種it has been屢次被指出，並沒有發展出特殊的器官來說話，the implication being that we are simply making use of the organs for eating and breathing in our efforts to communicate這些器官只簡單被用來進食和呼吸進而努力嘗試來溝通。這種說法seriously offered as evidence for的證明了語言的任意性、可學性和人造性。
The reasoning here is poor, however. The relationship between the outer form of an animal to its species-specific behavior repertoire is not always clear. So many factors influence this relationship that no canonical truths about innateness may be inferred from it.
然而此理論的reasoning立場相當薄弱，The relationship between動物的外在形體和特定物種的behavior repertoire行為表現，並沒有相對的關係is not always clear，許多因素都影響著這層關係，沒有任何標準的真相no canonical truths about innateness可從中推論而得。
Monday, November 24, 2008
Paul Cézanne (1839-1906)
Paul Cézanne (IPA: [pɔl se'zan]; 19 January 1839 – 22 October 1906) was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th century conception of artistic endeavour to a new and radically different world of art in the 20th century. Cézanne can be said to form the bridge between late 19th century Impressionism and the early 20th century's new line of artistic enquiry, Cubism. The line attributed to both Matisse and Picasso that Cézanne "is the father of us all" cannot be easily dismissed.
Cézanne's work demonstrates a mastery of design, colour, composition and draftsmanship. His often repetitive, sensitive and exploratory brushstrokes are highly characteristic and clearly recognizable. He used planes of colour and small brushstrokes that build up to form complex fields, at once both a direct expression of the sensations of the observing eye and an abstraction from observed nature. The paintings convey Cézanne's intense study of his subjects, a searching gaze and a dogged struggle to deal with the complexity of human visual perception.
Rideau, Cruchon et Compotier, 簾子、罐子、盤子1893-94
$60.5 - $78.3 Million
Rideau, Cruchon et Compotier is a painting created in about 1893 to 1894 by French artist Paul Cézanne (January 19, 1839 – October 22, 1906). It is considered the most expensive still life ever sold at an auction.
Cézanne was famous for drawing still lifes, especially those which expressed complex emotions while still being based upon reality. These type of paintings would eventually lead up to the creation of new art styles during the 20th century such as Picasso's cubism.
Sunday, November 23, 2008
Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890)
Portrait of Dr. Gachet (1890)
$82.5 - $136.1 Million
Portrait of Dr. Gachet is one of the most revered paintings by Dutch artist Vincent van Gogh and fetched a record price of $82.5 million ($75 million, plus a 10 percent buyer's commission) in 1990.
There are two authentic versions of this portrait, both painted in June 1890 during the last months of Van Gogh's life. Both show Doctor Gachet sitting at a table and leaning his head onto his right arm, but they are easily differentiated.
The portraits were painted in Auvers-sur-Oise close to Paris, and depict Doctor Paul Gachet with a foxglove (Fingerhut 指顶花 Digitalis 洋地黄) plant. Gachet took care of Van Gogh during the artist's last months. Gachet was a hobby painter and became good friends with Van Gogh. The foxglove in the painting is a plant from which digitalis is extracted for the treatment of certain heart complaints; the foxglove is thereby an attribute of Gachet as a doctor.
Ah! portraiture, portraiture with the thought, the soul of the model in it, that is what I think must come."
Van Gogh wrote to his brother in 1890 about the painting:
”I've done the portrait of M. Gachet with a melancholy expression, which might well seem like a grimace to those who see it... Sad but gentle, yet clear and intelligent, that is how many portraits ought to be done... There are modern heads that may be looked at for a long time, and that may perhaps be looked back on with longing a hundred years later. “
$53.9 - $102.3 Million
Irises is a painting by the Dutch artist Vincent van Gogh. It was one of his first works while he was at the asylum at Saint Paul-de-Mausole in Saint-Rémy-de-Provence, France in the last year before his death in 1890.
It was painted before his first attack at the asylum. There is a lack of the high tension which is seen in his later works. He called the painting "the lightning conductor for my illness", because he felt that he could keep himself from going insane by continuing to paint.
The painting was influenced by Japanese ukiyo-e 浮世絵 woodblock prints (木版印刷（もくはんいんさつ）), like many of his works and those by other artists of the time. The similarities occur with strong outlines, unusual angles, including close-up views and also flattish local colour (not modelled according to the fall of light).
$71.5 –$94.6 Million
Van Gogh painted Self-Portrait without beard just after he had shaved himself. The self-portrait is one of the most expensive paintings of all time, selling for $71.5 million in
Vincent van Gogh created many self-portraits during his lifetime. Most probably, Van Gogh's self portraits are depicting the face as it appeared in the mirror he used to reproduce his face, i.e. his right side in the image is in reality the left side of his face. All Self-Portraits executed in Saint-Rémy show the artist's head from the left, i.e. the side with ear not mutilated.
A Wheatfield with Cypresses 1889 《麥田裡的絲柏樹》
$57 - $85.1 Million
$39.7 - $75.4 Million
Sunflowers (original title, in French, Tournesols) are the subject of a series of still life paintings executed in oil on canvas by the Dutch painter Vincent van Gogh. Among the Sunflowers paintings are three similar paintings with fifteen sunflowers in a vase, and two similar paintings with twelve sunflowers in a vase.
Van Gogh began painting in late summer 1888 and continued into the following year. One went to decorate his friend Paul Gauguin's bedroom. The paintings show sunflowers in all stages of life, from fully in bloom to withering. The paintings were innovative for their use of the yellow spectrum, partly because newly invented pigments made new colours possible. In a letter to his brother Theo, van Gogh wrote: the sunflower is mine in a way.
Sunflowers, the complete series of paintings.
Analysis of two sunflower paintings.
$47.5 - $63.8 Million
Peasant Woman Against a Background of Wheat is an 1890 painting by Vincent van Gogh. On October 7, 2005, it was announced that Stephen Wynn had sold the painting along with Gauguin's Bathers to Steven A. Cohen for $100 million.
Women in Picasso’s Life and Art
1904-1912 Fernande Olivier (1881-1966)
Artist model Fernande Olivier (1881-1966) was Picasso's first long term relation and subject of many of Picasso's Rose Period paintings (1905-07).
1912-1915 Marcelle Humbert (Eva Gouel 1885-1915)
Fernande left Picasso in 1912, months after Picasso took an interest in Marcelle Humbert, known as Eva Gouel (1885-1915).
Picasso was devastated by her early death due to tuberculosis or cancer in 1915. Picasso professed his love to Eva by painting "I Love Eva" in some of his paintings. Still, during Eva's sickness Picasso managed a relationship with Gaby Lespinasse.
1917-1927 Olga Khokhlova (1891-1955) First Wife
In 1917 ballerina Olga Khokhlova (1891-1955) met Picasso while the artist was designing the ballet "Parade" in
1927-1936 Marie-Thérèse Walter (1909-1977)
In 1927 Picasso met Marie-Thérèse Walter (1909-1977), a 17 year old who Picasso then lived with in a flat across the street from his marital home (while still married to Olga). Marie-Thérèse and Picasso had a daughter, Maya (Maria de
1936-1944 Dora Maar (Henriette Théodora Markovich 1907 -1997)
In 1936 54-year old Picasso met Yugoslavian Dora Maar (1907 -1997), the photographer who documented Picasso's painting of Guernica, the 1937 painting of Picasso's depiction of the German's having bombed the Basque city of Guernica, Spain during the Spanish Civil War. She became Picasso's constant companion and lover from 1936 through April, 1944. Maar went back to painting and exhibited in
1943-1953 Françoise Gilot (1921-)
In 1943 Picasso (age 62) then kept company with young art student Françoise Gilot (born in 1921). Their two children were Claude (1947) and Paloma (1949) who was named for the dove of peace that Picasso painted in support of the peace movement post World War II. Gilot, frustrated with Picasso's relationships with other woman and his abusive nature left him in 1953. Gilot's book "Life with Picasso" was published 11 years after their separation. In 1970 she married American physician-researcher Jonas Salk (who later died in 1995).
1951-1953 Genevieve Laporte (1927-)
In 1944 17-year old Genevieve Laporte (born in 1927) interviewed Picasso for a school newspaper. Years later in May, 1951 Picasso began an affair with the then-24 year old. The relationship started when Laporte visited the 70-year old Picasso at his studio while he was still living with Françoise Gilot. That summer of 1951 Picasso took Laporte to St Tropez, leaving Françoise behind. After declining Picasso's invitation to move in with him in St. Tropez, she left him in 1953 at the same time that Françoise left the artist.
In 1972 she went public with the affair and stored the art that Picasso created of her in a safe. In 2005, at age 79, the poet Laporte auctioned 20 drawings of her that Picasso created during their secret affair. Picasso's time with Laporte has been referred to as Picasso's "tender period".
1953-1973 Jacqueline Roque (1926 -1986) Second Wife
Dejected and alone, in 1953 Picasso met Jacqueline Roque (1926 -1986) at the Madoura Pottery where Picasso created his ceramics. In 1961 (when Picasso was 79) she became his second wife. Picasso created more works of art based on Jacqueline than any of his other loves, in one year painting over 70 portraits of her.
When Picasso died on April 8, 1973, Jacqueline, who had been with Picasso for 20 years, prevented Picasso's children Claude and Paloma from attending his funeral. Jacqueline died from shooting herself in 1986.