The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus was once thought to be a satiety center; and the lateral hypothalamus was thought to be a hunger center.
Light influences the circadian clock via the retinohypothalamic tracts.
3.Neurons of the serotonergic raphe’ nuclei and the noradrenergic locus coeruleus are active during SWS.
4.Angiotensin II induces thirst through its effect on the subfornical organ.
5.The raphe’ nuclei are though to be involved in defensive behavior and SWS.
6.Cell bodies of mesotelencephalic dopamine neurons located in the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area.
7.The circadian clock is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei.
8.Bilateral lesions of the orbitofrontal cortex reduce fear and anxiety
9. REM sleep is controlled by cholinergic neurons in the pontine reticular formation.
10. The amygdala is a limbic site at which fear is through to be linked to particular sensory stimuli.
11. Increases in osmotic pressure are detected by osmoreceptors in the lateral preoptic area.
12. Lesions of the lateral hypothalamus disrupt motor behavior and produce a general insensitivity sensory stimulation.
13. Slow-wave sleep is punctuated by periods of REM sleep.
14. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system is associated with feelings of fear and anxiety.
15. Some of the effects of large VMN lesions result from damage to fibers passing through the area from the paraventricular nuclei.
16. The nucleus accumbens is an important terminal of the mesotelencephalic dopamine system.
17. Large bilateral lesions of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus increase eating by facilitating the conversion of blood glucose to body fat and blocking its conversion back to blood glucose.
18. Hypovolemia induces the release of renin from the kidneys , which increases the synthesis in the blood of angiotensin ll.
19. The target sites of tracts from the hypothalamus that mediate female and male copulatory behavior , respectively , are the periaqueductal gray and the lateral tegmental field.
20. The substantia nigra is located in the tegmentum of the midbrain.
21. Electrical stimulation of the raphe nuclei , amygdala , or some areas of the hypothalamus can elicit defensive behaviors.