英文翻譯 9580048 聽語二 許舒琇
Some Specific Syntatic Mechanisms = (a)Questions and Negations + (b)Inflectional endings
This part is about the development of a + b
(7)The Development of Some Specific Syntatic Mechanisms
(a)Questions and Negations.
In English, the construction of these forms is around the auxiliary verb.a peculiarity of our language that introduces a certain amount of complexity,comparable in degree to the intricate systerm of inflections encountered in the so-called poly-synthetic languages.For a technical treatment of thesr constructions in Englush see Katz and Postal(1964),Klima(1964),Chomsky(1965).
Although the growing child hears correct sentences of this type in abundance, he will, at first, produce utterances such as the following:
No Mommy eat
No a boy bad
I ride train?
What cowboy doing?
Where my milk go? (Bellugi.1966)
Even when he is asked to reprat a correctly formed sentence such as”Dog don’t like it!” or “Are you coming?” or “Where did he go ?”the child will reat “Dog no like it (no dog like it),””You coming?”or “Where he go?”This connot be attributed to a general inability to produce utterances of no more than four words.Even longer uttera-
ces occeur spontaneously and the uncommon,primitive forms also occur when the model sentence has only three woeds: “Are you coming?”
Bellugi(1966) has carried out the most sophisticated and careful analysis of the development of questions.Her
findings may be summarizes as follows: at first a string of woeds may turn into a question by casting it into a specific intonation pattern (a gradual rise in pitch),and negatives are simply expressed by prefixing a no to the string.Bellugi found that at this time the child gives no evidence of understanding the construction of certain types of questions.At a second stage, it becomes apparent that such complex constructions are understood (the child begims to give proper answers to respective questions), but in the child’s own productions the only interrogative makers are still either a rise in intonation(for questions that demand a yes/no amswer) or the initial occurrence of a question word(what,where,how,etc.).The third stage,occurring some ten months after the child has begun to form two-word utterances,is characterized by a further change: auxiliary verbs become functional and at the same time-formed questions and negative sentences make their appearance. In one of Bellugi’s subjects,
the third stage was foreshadowed by the introduction of a stereotyped’preverb’“Do-you-want,”which was simply placed before the common type of utterance. forming such strings as”Do you want me get it?” “Do (you) want he walk like this?”
(a)___________ 助動詞在英文的結構中有很大的複雜性，很多的形式或結構都依靠它建立，就像是在多數合成的語言中使用轉音變調的系統。Kate and Postal(1964), Klima(7964),Chomsky(1965)在英文尚有獨特的見解:雖然兒童發展上可聽見大量不同形式的聲音，起初他會跟著複述:No money eat,No a boy bad……等等，當它需要回覆正確一個改正過後的句子像”Dog do not like it ”這並不能說成無法發出四個字的音，甚至發出不和諧的長發音，主要的句型模式只有在三個字的句子，例如: Are you coming? Bellugi(1966)了解並熟知這些問題的發展，他的發現可以整理如下:1.一段文字可利用特別的語調(逐步升高音調)可變成一個疑問句。再一串文字前簡單加個〝NO〞亦可變成否定句。Bellugi發現兒童對正確的疑問句結構並不了解。2.複合句的結構較容易被了解。(兒童可以在各自的問題上給予合適的答案)，但兒童對自己在產生疑問句的時候仍然沒有上升音調(一個說法是無答案的問題)或在最初的疑問句時(what,where,how,etc.)3.嬰兒在數十月後可出不發出兩個字形式的聲音。另外還有一些改變如助動詞是疑問句和否定句有好的顯現形式之作用。而Bellugi認為第三項是初步套用過去式的前兆。共同簡易的發生類型像: Do-you-want形成一串像: ”Do you want me get it?” “Do (you) want he walk like this?”
The most impressive aspect of these investigations was that all three children followed by Bellugi and Roger Brown’s group﹡acquired the auxiliary system relatively
Late in their language development.When it was finally acquired, it was soon applied to most sentences in which it was appropriate, quickly superseding the more primitive constructions.Furthermore,Bellugi noted that at the beginning of the third stage there seemed to be a limited number of transformational operations that the child could perform on a single given string. Thus, if a negative plus a question was to be compounded in a single utterance, only one or the other aspect was well-formed. Thus, one of the children asked properly,”Can’t it be a bigger truck?”but failed to make the proper inversion in the queation,”Why the kitty can’t stand up?”
第三個階段可在兒童的語言發展後期時可得到這樣的結論。Bellugi and Roger Brown的團隊所提供的相關輔助系統說明，當他最後獲得訊息時他會快速地回覆適當的句子並且取代更多原本的結構。此外Bellugi注意到兒童似乎能單獨轉動操作完成第三項，因此，如果一個否定句和疑問句可被一個獨立的發音組合，只要一個或其他方面有很好的形成，所以問兒童問題”那是不是一台大卡車?”但無法適當的觀察疑問句,”Why the kitty can’t stand up?”
In school grammar the study of inflection is called morphology and is treated separately from syntax, which is thought to be primarily the study of word order.However,moder theory of grammar has made it clear that there is no essential difference among the so-called morphological and syntactic phenomena. Goodobservations have been made on the various steps toward normalization of inflectional endings which deserve a quick review.
The first occurrence of past tense is not signaled by a verb plus the suffix-ed (or its phonetic correlates) but various past-tense forms of the so-called strong verbs(or irregular verbs),particularly went,was,and were.but also an occasional took,gave,etc.At a later stage the past tense morpheme/ed/appears but now is generalized also to those
Forms where it does not occur in the adult grammer;this may now result in forms such as goed,as well as wented,gived,etc.Such errors persist for a very long time and may often extend into the first grades of school.Deviations of this kind are most informative.Apparently pastness is first learned as a semantic phenomenon,and it it most saliently labeled in the case of the linguistically ancient suppletive forms in which the word for the past is phonetically totally different from the present.Once the semantic past is linked to the –ed forms, a rule is generated and then applied universally. This process of overgeneralization was studied experimentally by Berko (1958) who induced childrenof four years and older to change spontaneously nonsense words into plural,past tence,third person singular,and possessive gorms.By this age the basic inflectional mechanisms appear to be very well-established,although some age-grading exists in the use of correct phonetic variants (allomorphs).
Put paragraph together!
R. Brown and Bellugi(personal communication),Leopold(1953-1954),and several others have noted that it takes a relatively long timeuntil the plural s is established
, although this is usually accomplished by the third bitherday. This is difficult to explain.Grammatical agreement within a sentence is accounted for by supposing that the elements in subject of sentence fall into two distinct subclasses-singular and plural
.Chomsky has shown that grammatical agreement is possible if we suppose that there is an obligatory ordering of rules for the expansion of elements.In fact,all rules of generative grammar have an order of application.The child’s difficulty with pluralization can’t be due simplt to lack of attention or insufficient phonetic in the adult language,because pluralization do occur a long period of time,but they are not in agreement with other parts of the sentence.
R. Brown and Bellugi(personal communication),Leopold(1953-1954)和其他學者有注意到他和長時間出現的複數S有相關性，即使通常是由第三人稱的出現所完成。這些現象很難解釋，文法上容許一個支持句中的主詞落在單數與複數這兩個明顯區別的解釋，如果我們假設對延伸要素有必須次序的規則，Chomsky指出這樣的文法是有可能性的。實際上，所有產生文法的規則都有運用的規律，小孩對複數的困難不是單純因為缺乏注意力或是成人語法中不適合的語音特點，而是因為在複數發展的長時間裡，他們並不與句中的其他部分有相同。