Type the paragraphs correctly. No line feeding within paragraphs.
Biological Function of Language:p307~p310
P.300 Primitive stages in language development
The first paragraph of page 300 is incomplete and starts with the last paragraph on page 299 … The necessity fo assuming transformational procedures that mediate ….(till end of page 299) in a string of words that compose a sentence even if he has never seen or heard the sentence before. Applying now the same argument used previously , we begin to see that structural similar between two strings of words implies the transformation of the physically given sound –patterns into an abstract schema (such as a phrase-marker) or, in other words, grammatical structure is the name of that class of abstract schemata by means of which we recognize structure similarity between physically different sentence. The question of whether the string, Colorless green ideas sleep furiously, is or is not a sentence is decided upon by searching for a structural similarity between this string and classes of other strings which belong to the set of grammatical sentence. Thus we discover that Chomsky’s sentence is similar to any one of the infinte set of sentences patterned after the structural schema
or more specifically
subject (consisting of a noun modified by an adjective that is modified by an adverb) predicate (consisting of an intransitive verb modified by an adverb).
This is the abstract schema to which sentences such as
Colorless green ideas sleep furiously.
Very interesting movies run longer.
Friendly little dogs bark loudly.
are transformed in the course of perceiving and understanding them. We do not have to assume, however, that the child knows the grammar consciously. A tennis player or bicycle rider responds to and being able to formulate them or to work out consciously any of the computations that his nervous system is doing for him.
Reference to Chomsky’s Appendix and the technical literature cited there will introduce the reader to the fine intricacies of the many types of transformation processes that must be assumed to underlie our power of structuration of verbal material. Not only are there various types of transformations and various levels of abstraction (depths, according to Chomsky’s terminolgy ) but an intricate net of perceived similarities between types of structures may be accounted for in terms of transformations, ambiguities may be resolved and explained, and subtle perceived differences between strings having similar surface structure are explicated by reference to transformational procedures.
We may once more ask, when and how these transformational operations come about? This is as difficult to answer as the question of when and how the perception of visual similarities comes about. This is the general type of phenomenon we are dealing with. It is true that both are empirical questions, but because they are inquiries into the modes of processing input data (which in the case of language happen to be identical with the mode of processing neural events underlying a specific output: discourse), they require verification techniques that are not well-developed as yet. This is an obstacle that will be overcome sooner or later.
As soon as we have appropriate techniques we will be able to answer these questions more specifically. However, we can never expect to find that the basis for perceiving similarities, or processing data transformationally, is a skill that is suddenly acquired. The perception of similarities must be a deeply ingrained process; it is the very nature of perceptual and even more generally, behavioral, organization. In Lashley’s example for instance, he states that most of us lear n to write with our right hand. Nevertheless, it possible to take a pencil into the left hand (or between the teeth), close our eyes , and write our name upside-down. It possible to produce something quite legible at first try. Lashley argued that in this case, where entirely different sets of muscles ina different part of the body are being activated and the direction of movements is opposite to the one weuse to ,we must assume the existence of a central (abstract) schema for a motor patter n by means of which we are capable of transferring the skill from right to left (or to the muscled that guide the head movements). Thus the peripheral motor patterns are transformed imto a schema, and the schema again is applied to different peripheral structures; the two motor patterns are related transformationally .
The ontogenetic history of transformational development is also one of gradual differentiation and elaboration. The essence of transformations must go back to neonate days and may well be discernible at even more immature stages. Gradually, various types of transformations emerge －those that organize visual input, those that organize motor output, and, eventually, those that organize verbal input and output. The perception of specific types of similarities may presuppose a given degree of organization and so emerge only at a later stage and as a clearcut milestone of development. Certain types of grammatical transformations may be beyond the language-learner’s capacity; he does not understand the sentence; he cannot organize the material, nor can he produse any utterance containing specift transformational relation ships between the component parts. But apart from this gradual differentiation of various transformational relationships, it can hardly be expected that transformation as a general type of process for organization is “suddenly lear ned”.
If phrase-structure and transformations are simply special applications of general modes of organization modes that are common to the organization of the behavior of all higher animals, why is language special-specific? There is only one possible answer. In order to achieve such special adaption, cognitive processes must be highly adapted biologically. The slightest alterations in the peculiarities of data-acceptance, data-storage, and temporal integration apparently interferes with the proper reception and production of the peculiar patterns called sentences.
Primitive stages in language development
因此，我們發現Chomsky的句子是有著相同，對任何一個句子來說，遵循基本模的結構模式存在。詞補語（subject predicate）、或是較為具體的（or more specifically）、主詞subject (consisting of a noun modified by an adjective that is modified by an adverb) 、補語 predicate (consisting of an intransitive verb modified by an adverb.)
（This is the abstract schema to which sentences such as）Colorless green ideas sleep furiously. Very interesting movies run longer.Friendly little dogs bark loudly.
Chomsky’s Appendix和文章中介紹給了許多類型的句子轉換過程，不但有多變化的句子轉換和不同階層變化的提取 (depths, according to Chomsky’s terminolgy )，且查覺到在很多類型的結構上，在轉變的相似地方，模糊的地方也許可以解釋和解決，從句子的延伸有著表面相似結構察覺到不一樣的地方，藉由文獻圖形數據來瞭解。
在音素（音韻）處理上，確是（臨床）經驗上的問題，但因為數據的標示及過程 (which in the case of language happen to be identical with the mode of processing neural events underlying a specific output: discourse)。 他們需要可證實的技術（尚未完整發展），這是一個障礙，遲早都要被克服。只要我們有適合的技術，我們會很專業地回答急需解決的問題。
在一整體歷史演化的發展過程，最重要的發展精華應該回到一個月大的嬰兒，也許是可識別的在更多發育未完整的階段。這些變化漸漸浮現出在組織上的和運動上的輸出與輸入，（organize visual input, those that organize motor output, and, eventually, those that organize verbal input and output.）