Resources for Communication Problems

Thursday, February 21, 2008

NC271TT Chapt.12

NC271TT Chapt.12

Mark who did which!

For each entry, find Chinese translation of the term, check etymology, find relevant websites, pictures, animations, or video on the web, if available


NC271TT01 archicerebellum

You are explaining anatomy, not archicerebellum


NC271TT02 asthenia


NC271TT03 asynergia


NC271TT04 ataxia

Wobbliness. Incoordination and unsteadiness due to the brain's failure to regulate the body's posture and regulate the strength and direction of limb movements. Ataxia is usually a consequence of disease in the brain, specifically in the cerebellum which lies beneath the back part of the cerebrum.


NC271TT05 climbing fibers




NC271TT06 deep cerebellar nuclei


NC271TT07 dysdiadochokinesia





Etymology: New Latin, from dys- + arthr- + -ia

Meaning: difficulty in articulating words due to disease of the central nervous system.Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder resulting from neurological injury, characterised by poor articulation (cf aphasia: disorder of the content of speech). Any of the speech subsystems (respiration, phonation, resonance, prosody, articulation and movements of jaw and tongue) can be affected.

Disarthic speech is due to some disorder in the nervous system, which in turn hinders control over, for example, tongue, throat, lips or lungs. Swallowing problems, dysphagia, are often present.

Cranial nerves that control these muscles include the facial nerve (VII), the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), the vagus nerve (X), and the hypoglossal nerve (XII).


Dysarthrias are classified in multiple ways based on the presentation of symptoms. Specific dysarthrias include spastic, flaccid, ataxic, unilateral upper motor neuron, and mixed dysarthria.


The reasons behind dysarthria can be many; among the diseases are stroke, ALS, Parkinson's disease, botulism, cranial nerve lesions, chorea, prion protein related diseases, and cerebral palsy. Dysarthria can also be an early symptom of stroke, and of other forms of traumatic brain injury. More common causes are intoxication and anesthesia, although these are transient. Another possibility is myasthenia gravis.


The articulation problems that dysarthria causes can be treated together with a speech language pathologist using a range of techniques which sometimes includes strengthening the speech musculature. Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) devices that make coping with dysarthria easier include speech synthesis software and text-based telephones.


Improve dysarthria with speech therapy on video

Spactic dysarthria



英文解釋:(of muscular tissue) the state of being hypotonic


張力減退/張力過弱. 張力減退是指肌肉張力減退, 通常出現於新生嬰兒,可暗示中央系統機能障礙,基因或肌肉紊亂。



NC271TT09 dysdiadochokinesia

Main Entry: dys·di·ad·o·cho·ki·ne·sia連續更替運動之能力失常

Variant: or dys·di·ad·o·ko·ki·ne·sia

Function: noun

Dys 失去+diadochokinesia《名》 連續更替運動之能力,(兩種反方向運動之連續變換,例如手掌向上向下之轉換).

Definition: impairment of the ability to make movements exhibiting a rapid change of motion that is caused by cerebellar dysfunction —compare ADIADOKOKINESIS

adiadochokinesia (adi•a•do•cho•ki•ne•sia) [a1diadochokinesia] a dyskinesia<> 運動困難,運動不良consisting of inability to perform the rapid alternating movements of diadochokinesia. Called also adiadochocinesia, adiadochokinesis, and adiadokokinesia

NC271TT10 hypotonia


Hypotonia is a condition of abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle), often involving reduced muscle strength. Hypotonia is not a specific medical disorder, but a potential manifestation of many different diseases and disorders that affect motor nerve control by the brain or muscle strength. Recognizing hypotonia, even in early infancy, is usually relatively straightforward, but diagnosing the underlying cause can be difficult and often unsuccessful. The long-term effects of hypotonia on a child's development and later life depend primarily on the severity of the muscle weakness and the nature of the cause. Some disorders have a specific treatment but the principal treatment for most hypotonia of idiopathic or neurologic cause is physical therapy to help the person compensate for the neuromuscular disability.

NC271TT11 intention tremor


術語原意:A tremor which arises or which is intensified when a voluntary, coordinated movement is attempted.


NC271TT12 mossy fibers

苔狀神經,定義:軸突提供投入到小腦從其他部分的大腦。 They provide direct connections with both golgi and granule cells in the granular layer.他們提供直接的聯繫,無論golgi與顆粒細胞中的顆粒層。 The axons originate in the pons and spinocerebellar pathways.軸突起源於橋腦和脊髓通路。 Each has 3 to 5 synapses with granule cell dendrites.35個突觸與顆粒細胞的樹突。

NC271TT13 neocerebellum


NC271TT14 paleocerebellum


a phylogenetically old part of the cerebellum concerned with maintenance of normal postural relationships and made up chiefly of the anterior lobe of the vermis and of the pyramid

前葉anterior lobe 位於小腦上部原裂以前的部分,加上小腦下面的蚓垂和蚓錘體。在種系發生上晚於絨球小結葉,稱為舊小腦paleocerebellum

NC271TT15 Purkinje cells

Purkinje cells柏金氏細胞


NC271TT16 rebounding



No comments: