Resources for Communication Problems

Thursday, January 31, 2008



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NC454G李柔儀 9580052

撰寫人:9580052 李柔儀

atherosclerotic plaque

Lesion causing plaque resulting from accumulated fatty substances involving the tunica media of an artery and leading to obstruction.

Chinese term? Find out the Chinese translation for each term! Explain in Chinese?

定義:The process of aorta calcification is started by an irritation of the outer cell-layer of the innermost tissue of the artery – the endothelium.



Involuntary,slow writhing (constant flexion and extension)movements of limbs subsequent to basal ganglia pathology)

Chinese term? Explain in Chinese?

[G. athetos, without position or place]

Origin: Gr. Athetos = not fixed


定義:This animation illustrates the location of basal ganglia in the brain. Injury to the basal ganglia may result in athetosis (constant writhing movements of the body).




Lack of muscle tone.

Chinese term? Explain in Chinese?

定義:When awake, humans and several other vertebrates show low- voltage (10-30µV), fast (16-25 Hz) EEG activity. When relaxed, humans also show sinusoidal alpha activity of about 20-40 µV and 10 Hz. Passage from wakefulness to non-REM sleep is characterized by progressively slower frequencies and higher voltage activities in the EEG. Non-REM sleep comprises four stages (Figure 47-1).




Wasting away of muscle tissue,include reduction in muscle fiber diameter (weakening of the force of contraction owing to disuse atrophy)or disintegration of muscle fibers (denervation atrophy).This is associated with lower motor neuron pathologies.

Chinese term? Explain in Chinese?

定義: These two brains have both had their arachnoid membranes removed. The top brain is normal. The brain underneath is from a patient with Alzheimer's diseasem demonstrating significant cortical atrophy.


atrophy of denervation

Severely reduced muscle mass with loss of muscle fibers,resulting from prolonged loss (6 months or more)of lower motor neuron innervation of these fibers.

Chinese term? Explain in Chinese?

定義:Diseases that affect the lower motor neuron at any point cause myofiber atrophy. The motor neuron exerts a trophic influence on muscle. This influence is mediated by impulses and by chemical substances (trophic factors) which, acting through the synapse, influence protein synthesis in muscle. Myofibers that lose their innervation become angular and shrink. They lose 80% to 90% of their mass within a few months. At an extreme stage of atrophy, virtually all sarcoplasm is lost and the myofiber is reduced to a cluster of nuclei. In the process of denervation, there is loss and disarray of myofilaments but no myonecrosis occurs. Myofiber atrophy can be best denervation atrophyappreciated in cross sections.


atrophy of disuse

Reduction in muscle body mass without loss of muscle fibers(cells)caused by decreased muscular activity.

Chinese term? Explain in Chinese?

定義:Atrophy of skeletal muscle. This type of atrophy follows interruption of the nerve supply to a muscle or part of a muscle. There are two possible causes for the atrophy 1) disuse 2) loss of nerve supply. The presence of cross striations indicate that this is striated muscle and the peripheral location of the nuclei distinguishes it from cardiac muscle


attenuation reflex

Reflexive contraction of the middle ear muscles causing a decrease in auditory sensitivity.

定義:The acoustic enclosure comprises a box, on which is mounted at least one electro-acoustic transducer, and a vent which together with the box produces a bass-reflex system with a specified bass-reflex resonant frequency. The vent comprises means of attenuation at the bass-reflex resonant frequency. Included is an audiovisual apparatus comprising a display device and such an enclosure

Enclosure and audio-visual apparatus comprising same



Graphic representation of hearing thresholds for tones at various frequencies.

定義:The audiogram is a plot of a person’s hearing thresholds. Across the top of the audiogram is the pitch of the tones, from low to high pitch, plotted in frequency from 250 to 8000 Hertz (Hz). The level in decibels (dB) is plotted down the side. The normal range of hearing is from 0 to 20 decibels hearing level (dBHL).




Assessment of hearing sensitivity for a range of pure tones using the decibels(Dbspl)scale.

定義:Audiometry is the testing of a person's ability to hear various sound frequencies. The test is performed with the use of electronic equipment called an audiometer. This testing is usually administered by a trained technician called an audiologist.

Audiogram for determining the audibility curve for pure-tone hearing loss at various frequency levels.


auditory association

Brain region located around the primary auditory cortex ,responsible for the elaboration of auditory information.

定義:So, how does it work? See that large blue area (auditory association/memory of sound)-that's where your brain stores sound. It's right by the auditory cortex (that small maroon blob). Look how big Auditory Association is compared to Visual Association (red, toward the back). Now, where we're trying to go is the Prefrontal Cortex-that's where action happens. Sight has to go from your eyes (front, obviously) to the back of your head to where it's processed in the brown, then to the storage area. And it's a long way from the Prefrontal Cortex-up where things happen.


auditory reflexes

Protective simultaneous head and eye movements in response to loud auditory stimuli.

定義:The sound is reflected back as an otoacoustic signal emission of the cochlea. This OAE signal is the audio input used by the invention. Audio input transducer 76, including a 2f.sub.1 -f.sub.2 cochlear distortion, converts the audio input into a response signal. Optionally, the audio input transducer may be an acoustic microphone. In a first embodiment, first and second audio output transducers 74 and 75 and audio input transducer 76 are non-invasively coupled to the human auditory canal of the subject. The non-invasively coupling may be accomplished with a plug 77. Plug 77 may be manufactured of soft foam or soft plastic or any other suitable material. In one embodiment, the plug has three tubes, 78, 79 and 80, passing through it. The proximal end of each tube is connected to the first and second audio output generators and the distal end of each tube terminates in the auditory canal of the subject.

 Non-invasive method and apparatus for monitoring intracranial pressure


auditory system

Neuroanatomic system ,beginning in the inner ear,passing the brainstem,thalamus(medial geniculate body),and terminating in the auditory cortex.Responsible for auditory perception.

定義:An introductory course in the molecular biology of the auditory system. First half focuses on human genetics and molecular biology, covering fundamentals of pedigree analysis, linkage analysis, molecular cloning, and gene analysis as well as ethical/legal issues, all in the context of an auditory disorder. Second half emphasizes molecular approaches to function and dysfunction of the cochlea, and is based on readings and discussion of research literature.

The inner ear.



Condition in which antibodies attack the body’s own normal tissues.


定義:Autoimmunity is the erroneous production of antibodies against ones own tissues (e.g., Nerve demyelination in Multiple sclerosis, MS). Autoimmunity is an exception, rather than to the rule. This is because the cells of each person have a unique code of self-antigens (Major Histocompatiability Complexes, MHC) embedded in the plasma membrane so that immune system can distinguish your own cells from foreign cells.


autonomic dysfunctions

Neurologic disorders involving pupil dilation/constriction,sexual activity,perspiration,blood pressure ,thirst,hunger,urination,and gastric function.

定義:In medicine there is a contemporary movement, which focuses on evidence-based medicine. This approach follows ideas of Archie Cochrane who has started to discuss outcome and effectiveness of medical studies and treatment. Practitioners should be sure about the appropriate evidence of choosen medication and methods to achieve evidence. Therefore the statistical tool of metaanalysis and systematic review methods of published studies was been developed further to compare studies with same methods, samples and outcome. This movement of medical research has become more and more an evaluation tool for the effectiveness of treatment methods and within the medical range. The article "Evaluation of Music Therapy in German Neurorehabilitation - Starting Point for European Comparability" from Annkathrin Pöpel, Silke Jochims, Norbert van Kampen, Holger Grehl is based on a talk given at the European Conference for Music Therapy in Naples, Italy in April 2001. They have done a literature review on music therapy in neurological rehabilitation. Read what they found out about the work being done in Europe.


autonomic ganglia

Group of nuclei located in the peripheral nervous system that mediate impulses from the central nervous system to various visceral organs ,cardiac muscles,smooth muscles,and glands.

定義:Autonomic nerves (in blue)--sympathetic and parasympathetic--regulate much of the body without our conscious knowledge. Sympathetic nerves branch from spinal nerves (in white) and form a chain of ganglia that sends fibers to the organs. Parasympathetic nerves, including the important vagus, usually reverse the action of sympathetic ones.

Art:Autonomic nerves (in blue)--sympathetic and parasympathetic--regulate much of the body without our conscious knowledge. Sympathetic nerves branch from spinal nerves (in white) and form a chain of ganglia that sends fibers to the organs. Parasympathetic nerves, including the important vagus, usually reverse the action of sympathetic ones.


autonomic nervous system

Division of the peripheral nervous system with sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers. Works subconsciously and innervates lood vessels,internal organs,and glands.

定義:The autonomic nervous system controls involuntary homeostatic mechanisms
that control target cells in exocrine and endocrine glands, smooth muscle in the
intestine and blood vessels, and cardiac muscle. The A.N.S. is directly regulated
by the medulla and hypothalamus and indirectly by the limbic system. See pg 533.

Diagram of sympathetic and parasymapthetic nervous system - link to chapter on Autonomic nervous system



Autocerebral mechanism for regulating blood flow to the brain.

定義:Returning to bioactive compounds and their receptors, we can expand Figure 7 by stating that while biochemical information emerges in the ligand-receptor complex, it needs higher levels of biological complexity to become macroscopically meaningful. These levels of higher complexity are the biological context, or better said a hierarchy of nested biological contexts (organelles, cells, tissues, organs, systems, organisms, ...). At each level, recognition and transactions must occur for the information to become a meaningful signal recognized by the next contextual level, and so on. The resulting spiral is depicted in Figure 9 and leads to the deduction that the autoregulation of organisms is based on a genuine bootstrapping of information and meaning.



Related to chromosomes other than sex chromosomes.

[] 《形》 正染色體的.

定義:Progressive external ophthalmoplegia is a disorder of the mitochondria. It is characterized by multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions in skeletal muscle. The most common clinical features include adult onset of weakness of the external eye muscles (ophthalmoplegia) and exercise intolerance. Additional symptoms are variable, and may include cataracts, hearing loss, sensory axonal neuropathy, ataxia, depression, hypogonadism, and parkinsonism. Both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance can occur; autosomal recessive inheritance is usually more severe.

Example of how progressive external ophthalmoplegia may be inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion.


autosomal dominance

Genetic expression mode in which a dysfunctional alleles possessed by one parent dominates the second allele from the other parent.Each offspring has a 50%probability of inheriting this dys functional gene and the disorder.

定義:Genes are the instructions found in each cell of the body that determine how the body is to develop and function. Genes are strung together, one after the other, and packaged into individual chromosomes, which are transmitted from parent to child in a very regular fashion. All chromosomes come in pairs; in humans, there are 23 pairs in all. One chromosome from each pair is inherited from the mother, and one from the father.

X-linked dominant gene diagram


axial muscles

Muscles associated with the central part of the body that regulate movements of the body or trunk.

定義:The other pathway followed by the corticospinal tract is called the ventromedial system. This system begins in the cortical motor neurons that control the body's axial muscles. This ventral corticospinal tract is composed 10 to 20% of cortical axons . Unlike the lateral system, the ventromedial system does not change sides when it enters the spinal cord, whence its other name, the direct pyramidal tract (as opposed to the crossed pyramidal tract). It descends fairly directly into the ventral and medial part of the spinal cord, where it connects to the motor neurons that innervate the axial muscles and the proximal segments of the arms and legs.



Neuronal process capable of conducting neuronal impulses to other cell bodies.

定義:The long, thread-like part of the nerve cell that extends from the cell body. The axon is covered by a sheath of myelin and is specialised for signal transduction; at the end of the axon, the nerve impulses are transmitted to other neurons or to effector organs.


axon collaterals

Small subsidiary processes attached to the main body of the axon.

Chinese translation of this term?

定義: Afferent stimulation of the white matter evoked mono- and polysynaptic responses in identified PFC pyramidal neurons, with corresponding axon collaterals preserved in the brain slice under study (using whole-cell recording technique). Current-clamp recordings show constant latencies for early EPSP/spike (a), a monotonic increase in evoked EPSP amplitude with increasing stimulus strength (a1), and the ability to follow 20 Hz train stimulation (a2), consistent with a monosynaptic event, that is, Type I response pattern. Each arrow indicates the stimulus onset and artefact. Neurons exhibiting the Type I response pattern typically had little (eg restricted to basilar dendrites; a3) or moderate (eg up to middle layers; b2) preservation of their intracortical axon collaterals. On the other hand, variable onset latencies for late EPSP/spike (ie the second spikes in b1 and c1), the rapid recruitment of high-amplitude events with small increases in stimulus strength (c1), and the inability to follow high-frequency trains of impulses (see Figure 7 a2) are consistent with a polysynaptic process, that is, Type II response pattern. Neurons displaying this Type II response pattern in whole-cell recordings also exhibited extensively ramifying axon collaterals ascending from somatodendritic field to middle layers, in contrast to the superficial layer ramification pattern that is more frequently observed in the Type II neurons recovered during sharp-electrode intracellular recordings (see Figure 1 c1). This may be due to the fact that visualized whole-cell recordings tend to record from neurons located closer to the surface of slices than sharp-electrode intracellular recordings. (a1, a2, a3) show the corresponding electrophysiological and morphological characteristics typical of the Type I response neurons in whole-cell recordings (ie with limited preservation of axon collaterals). (b1, b2) show the corresponding electrophysiological and morphological characteristics typical of the Type I/II borderline neurons (ie with numerous axon collaterals confined to the somatodendritic field). (c1, c2) show the corresponding electrophysiological and morphological characteristics typical of the Type II response neurons that have axon collaterals that extend beyond middle layers. Open arrows mark axon collaterals. (a1) A Type I neuron displayed a 21 mV-sized EPSP (at 1.1 mA), and a 9 ms latency spike at –46 mV spike threshold (at 1.3 mA). (b1) A mixed Type I/II neuron displayed an all- or none response, with no response at 0.1 mA, whereas spike discharge at 0.2–0.5 mA. The first spike latency was shortened from 10 to 7 ms as increasing stimulus strength from 0.2 mA to 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 mA, without altering the spike threshold (-48 mV). The second spike of two spikes evoked at 0.4 and 0.5 mA occurred at slightly longer latency (13.1 ms) and higher threshold (-41 mV) than the first spike. (c1) A Type II neuron displayed a 4 mV IPSP (at 0.3 mA), 10 mV-EPSP (at 0.4 mA), and one spike (at 0.5 mA) or two spikes (at 0.6 mA). The second spike of the two spikes evoked at 0.6 mA occurred at significantly longer latency (42.4 ms) and higher spike threshold (-47 mV), compared to the first spike (7 ms latency; -65 mV spike threshold). (a3, c2) DMSO-mounted horizontal slices. (b2) A protex-mounted coronal slice. Scale bars: a3, b2, and c2=40 mum.

Figure 2 - Unfortunately we are unable to provide accessible alternative text for this. If you require assistance to access this image, please contact or the author


axonal hillock

Site where the axon joins the cell.

定義:Structure of typical mammalian neurons. Arrows indicate the direction of conduction of action potentials in axons (red). (a) Multipolar interneurons. Each has profusely branched dendrites, which receive signals at synapses with several hundred other neurons, and a single long axon that branches laterally and at its terminus. (b) A motor neuron that innervates a muscle cell. Typically, motor neurons have a single long axon extending from the cell body to the effector cell. In mammalian motor neurons an insulating sheath of myelin usually covers all parts of the axon except at the nodes of Ranvier and the axon terminals. (c) A sensory neuron in which the axon branches just after it leaves the cell body. The peripheral branch carries the nerve impulse from the receptor cell to the cell body, which is located in the dorsal root ganglion near the spinal cord; the central branch carries the impulse from the cell body to the spinal cord or brain. Both branches are structurally and functionally axons, except at their terminal portions, even though the peripheral branch conducts impulses toward, rather than away from, the cell body


axonal reaction

Retrograde chromatolytic changes in the soma marked by disintegration of the granules of the nissl bodies after damage to an axon.

定義:Axonal reaction is also known as central chromatolysis. If an axon is severed or otherwise injured, the perikaryon (neuronal cell body) swells, rounds up and becomes pale-staining. The Nissl substance disappears except just below the cell membrane, and the nucleus moves to the edge of the cell.

* "Peripheral chromatolysis": The neuron is recovering!

* Healthy Clarke's column and some other neuron groups can show central chromatolysis for some reason.)


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