Review Exercise 1.4
Below in alphabetical order is a list of all the terms and definitions that you learned in Chapter1. Cover the definitions with a sheet of paper, and work your way down the list of terms, defining them to yourself as you go. Repeat this process until you have gone through the list twice without error. Then, cover the terms and work your way down the list of definitions, providing the correct terms as you go. Repeat this second process until you have gone through the list twice without a error.
Adrenal cortex The outer layer of the adrenal gland; it releases hormones that regulate energy, metabolism, mineral balance, and reproductive behavior.
Adrenal medulla The core of the adrenal gland; it is activated by the sympathetic nervous system, and in turn it secrets hormones whose effects are similar to those of the sympathetic nervous system.
Autonomic The division of the peripheral nervous system that participates in
nervous system the regulation of the body’s internal environment; it conducts sensory signals to the CNS from receptors in internal organs, and motor signals from the CNS back to the same internal organs.
Brain The part of the central nervous system that is located in the skull.
Central nervous The part of the vertebrate nervous system that is located within the
system skull and spine.
Cervical region The section of the spine that provides the flexible framework of the neck or cervix.
Dorsal roots The 31 pairs of sensory nerves that enter the spinal cord; they enter the spinal cord’s dorsal surface.
Gonads The sex glands (i.e., ovaries in women and testes in men); they release hormones that influence both the development of female and male reproductive systems and the reproductive behavior of adults.
Hypothalamus The brain structure from which the pituitary is suspended; it secretes releasing hormones, which stimulate the release of tropic hormones from the pituitary.
Lumbar region The section of the spine that supports the small of the back.
Parasympathetic One of the two motor divisions of the automatic nervous system;
nervous system it tends to conserve energy during periods of quiescence; parasympathetic nerves project from the sacral region of the spinal cord.
Peripheral The part of the vertibrate nervous system that is located outside
nervous system the skull and spine.
Pituitary gland The gland that hangs from the hypothalamus; because it releases tropic hormones, it is often referred to as the master.
Sacral region The section of the spine to which the bones of the pelvis are attached.
Somatic nervous The division of the peripheral nervous system that interacts with
system the external environment; it conducts sensory signals to the CNS from external receptors in joints and skeletal muscles, and it conducts motor signals from the CNS to skeletal muscles.
Spinal cord The part of the central nervous system that is located in the spine.
Spinal gray The H-shaped area of gray nervous tissue in the core of the spinal
Spinal white The area of white nervous tissue in the spinal cord; it surrounds the
matter spinal gray matter.
Sympathetic One of the two motor divisions of the autonomic nervous system; it
nervous system tends to mobilize energy resources during periods of threat; sympathetic nerves project from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord.
Thoracic region The section of the spine to which the ribs are attached.
Ventral roots The 31 pairs of motor nerves that exit the spinal cord; they project from the spinal cord’s ventral surface.