It is exactly the opposite of what we might expect from at least one theoretical point of view. If the development of speech were the consequence of the child’s hearing, his own utterances, and noticing the similarities between his own and his parent’s sounds, and if the pleasure in speaking derived from his ability to reproduce, for example, his mother’s sounds, then his first “aim” should be to replicate as a accurately as possible the mature sounds he hears. The mental defect should be no obstacle here, or perhaps even an advantage much the way talking birds say sentences without the benefit of a human mentality.
我們的預期中至少一項理論以上的觀點，是相對的。如果學說的發展是由於孩子的聽力、他自己的語調及注意父母與自己聲音的相似處，且對於自己反覆的說話能力感到愉悅。例如，他的母親發出聲音，然後他的第一個 ”目標” 便是重覆相同的音，並且儘可能準確純熟的發出他所聽到的聲音。心智上的缺陷不會有妨礙，甚至可能會成為他的優勢，好比有些鳥雖然會說話，但是他們卻不向人一樣是用心智來說話的。
The poor articulation of the mongoloid child may actually be related to a lack of motivation. Usually these children can articulate better than they do, but apparently exact acoustic rendering of utterance is not important to them. The children in our mongoloid sample words in which the most common phonemes of English were embedded in vocalic or consonantal surroundings for consonants and vowels respectively. The child was asked to repeat one word at a time. The performance of a selected sample of children (N = 25) on this articulation test was compared with their articulation of spontaneously produced words and phrases. The analysis was performed by two linguistics. * In all cases studied, performance on the test was considerably better than during spontaneous speech, thus demonstrating that the child is organically capable of accurate articulation.
Mongoloid孩子的構音缺失通常關係到他的動作上的缺損，這些孩子通常可以構音的更好，但是顯然精確的發音表現對他們而言，是不重要的。mongoloid的孩子，在我們普遍的英文文字因素樣本中的表現，。孩子們被要求重複一個字一次，其中樣本中的孩子(N = 25)，在構音測驗中的表現是可以與自發性的字詞片語相比的。這個分析是由兩種語言而來。*在所有的個案研究中，測驗的表現是比自發性的言語表現好的，因此這證明了這些孩子是有正確發音的組織能力。
An expedient way for testing understanding is to have subjects repeat sentences. Most of us have attempted at one time or another to repeat something in a totally foreign language. In the absence of understanding, even the reproduction of a single word may be difficult, whereas short sentences are an impossibility.
Consider the following transcribed attempts at sentence reception. This is a twelve-year-old mongoloid girl whose language development is comparable to that of a normal two-and-a-half year old.
*Jacqueline Wei Mintz and Peter Rosenbaum. Throughout the observation period the child wore a condenser microphone in a bib around his chest. Recording equipment was of high fidelity. The examination room was sound proofed.
* Jacqueline Wei Mintz 和Peter Rosenbaum, 在觀察的期間，孩子穿著胸部的圍裙，上頭戴著電容器麥克風，儀器記錄為最高準確度。檢查室為隔音的空間。
(1) Johnny是個好男孩 Johnny是個好男孩
(2) Johnny是個好男孩 Johnny是個男孩
(3) 他有兩隻狗 他有兩隻狗
(4) 他帶牠們去散步 他帶牠們去散步
(5) 他帶牠們去散步 他帶牠們去散步
(6) Lassie不喜歡水 他不喜歡水
(7) Lassie不喜歡水 Lassie不喜歡水
(8) 那Johnny想要一隻貓嗎? Johnny想要貓嗎?(問題以音調模 式標記)
(10) 那隻貓被狗追 被狗追
(11) 那隻貓被狗追 貓追狗
(12) Johnny餵那隻狗 被Johnny餵
(13) “告訴我，Johnny餵誰?” 那隻狗
(14) “非常好；那麼說： 狗被Johnny餵
The first nine sentences seem to have been essentially understood, but in all sentences except three the repeated sentence is slightly different from the model sentence. The alterations in several instances are not grammatical English, so that the child could not have heard them before. This patient is still deficient in some of the more refined rules of English, but the basic sentence type is present. The “do-constructions” are understood but the rules do not function well enough yet to enable this patient to apply them to sentence. Consequently, sentences (6), (8), and (9) are changed back into grammatically simpler but incorrect forms. Sentence (7) is the only attempt, only partially successful, to use the “dose-not-form.” The passive construction in sentences (10) to (14) is not well understood, although question (13) is answered correctly. However, all attempts at reception of the sentences are failures.
In sentences (10) and (12) reception is attempted by apparently taking recourse to a different strategy. Instead of trying to understand the meaning of the sentence and to reproduce the sentence in its essentials. the meaning of the sentence is ignored entirely and repetition is attempted as in a rote memory task. When we are asked to repeat a string of random digits, we are only able to repeat the last ones, and the number of digits remembered is a function of memory span. When grammatical connections between words is not understood, the subject behaves as if a string of randomly concatenated words had been presented. This blind repetition may be called parroting.
In our study of language-understanding among the mongoloid, we were interested to know at what stage of development a child would take recourse to parroting. A child was said to be simply parroting if he only repeated the last word or words of the sentence spoken to him instead of picking out some functionally important words such as the subject-noun and the verb. We classified the responses of a selected group of children (N = 25) into: (1) correct repetitions of the original sentence; (2) sentences that are grammatically correct but different from the original; (3) recognizable sentences that are grammatically incorrect; (4) two-word phrases that are not parroting; and (5) parroting. This subsample of our patients was divided into five groups according to their grammatical ability. Figure 7.11 shows the result. Parroting dose not seem to be the way to begin language. This was also clearly brought out in a recent study by Ervin (1964). Parroting is resorted to when the grammar of the original sentence is simply not understood. It is comparable to a panic-response elicited by the pressure of the examiner to get the subject to “try his best.”
在我們的mongoloid語言認知研究中，我們很想知道孩子的哪一個發展階段會依賴鸚鵡式仿說。一個孩子會被說是單純的鸚鵡式仿說，如果他只有重複最後一個字，或是句中的字詞而非選出一些功能上重要的字，像是主要名詞和動詞。我們將選出的群組孩子(N = 25)的反應分類為：(1)原始句子的正確複製；(2)文法正確但與原始句子不同的句子；(3)不合文法的可辨識句子；(4)非鸚鵡式仿說的雙字詞；(5)鸚鵡式仿說。下面這些我們患者的樣本根據他們的文法能力被分為五組，圖7.11顯示出結果。鸚鵡式仿說並非開始學習語言的方法，這清楚的在最近Ervin(1964)的研究中可以看出來。鸚鵡式仿說是指原始句子的文法並無被了解的重複，它可以說是引發壓迫測試者將測驗做到最好的”驚慌反應。
FIG.7.11 Distribution of “parroting responses” with respect to stages of development in 25 mongoloid children.
潛在句子 完成下列成操作 結果：
Peter喜歡小餅乾 在此句中加上連接詞and peter喜歡小餅乾
Peter喜歡紅色棒棒糖 刪除第一個句子中有重 和紅色棒棒糖
Peter想要那東西 加上連接詞and so Peter wants one and so.
Johnny想要那東西 將句子轉為強調形式 Johnny does want one.
刪除第二句中與第一句 Johnny dose
將主語換位，保留述語 dose Johnny
將最初形式的後面加上前者 Peter wants one and
so does Johnny.