Resources for Communication Problems

Thursday, March 13, 2008




P.330 Evidence for …There are many instances today of Deaf-and blind people who have built up language capacities on tactually perceived stimulus configuration.

The complete paragraph begins with P. 330A whole paragraph is missing失聰和失明的人,可以用觸覺刺激來建立語言能力



The activity of naming or, in general, of using words may be seen as the human peculiarity to make explicit a process that is quite universal among higher animals, namely, the organization of sensory data. All vertebrates are equipped to superimpose categories of functional equivalence upon stimulus configurations, to classify objects in such a way that a single type of response is given to any one member of a particular stimulus category. The criteria or nature of categorization have to be determined empirically for each species. Frogs may jump to a great variety of flies and also to a specific range of dummy-stimuli, provided the stimuli preserve specifiable characteristics of the “real thing.”


Furthermore, most higher animals have a certain capacity for discrimination. They may learn or spontaneously begin to differentiate certain aspects within the first global category, perhaps by having their attention directed to certain details or by sharpening their power of observation. In this differentiation process initial categories may become subdivided and become mutually exclusive, or a number of coexisting general and specific categories or partially overlapping categories may result. Again, the extent of a species’ differentiation capacity is biologically given and must be ascertained empirically for each species. Rats cannot make the same range of distinctions that dogs can make, and the latter are different in this respect from monkeys. The interspecific differences cannot merely be explained by differences in peripheral sensory thresholds. Apparently, a function of higher, central processes is involved that to do with cognitive organization.

而且, 大多數高等動物有某種區辦的能力。他們可能學習或者自發開始區辨第一個全球種類的某些方面,或許透過讓人把他們的注意指向某些細節或者透過他們敏銳的觀察能力。在這最初的區辨過程,可能變成再細分,且彼此互補,或者是,普遍共存的其中之一,且是特別種類或可能發生部份種類重疊。再次,種類區別能力的廣度是生物學的給並且一定是每以經驗來做為種類查明的依據。相同的區別範圍,老鼠不能做的但狗能做,並且後者和猴子在這方面有不同。種類間的差異不能僅僅用外部的觀點來解釋。顯然的,高等的功能,它的中心過程是包括認知的組織。

Most primates and probably many species in other mammalian orders have the capacity to relate various categories to one another and thus to respond to relations between things rather than to things themselves; an example is “to respond to the largest of any collection of things.” Once more, it is a matter of empirical research to discover the limits of relations that a species is capable of responding to.

大多數靈長動物和很多其他哺乳動物的層級有能力講述各式各樣的種類,因此對事情之間關係做出回應而不對事情本身作出回應。 舉例來說:對一件任何都收集的大事情作出回應。再者,發現一個種類的限制關係是一種憑經驗的研究,那是一種回應的能力。

In summary, most animals organize the sensory world by a process of categorization, and from this basic mode of organization two further processes derive: differentiation or discrimination, and interrelating of categories or the perception of and tolerance for transformationsChapter Seven. In man these …are usually called (P. 332) concept-formation; …….identical across species.

總之,大多數動物運用分類的過程來組織感覺世界,且從這基本的組織模式中取得二更遠的過程︰區別或者辨別,且種類的相互關連或者感覺是容許轉變的(7)Complete and translate the whole paragraph.

No comments: