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Resources for Communication Problems
Thursday, March 13, 2008
P.330 Evidence for …There are many instances today of Deaf-and blind people who have built up language capacities on tactually perceived stimulus configuration.
The complete paragraph begins with P. 330…A whole paragraph is missing…失聰和失明的人，可以用觸覺刺激來建立語言能力
Ⅱ TOWARD A BIOLOGICAL CONCEPTION OF SEMANTICS
The activity of naming or, in general, of using words may be seen as the human peculiarity to make explicit a process that is quite universal among higher animals, namely, the organization of sensory data. All vertebrates are equipped to superimpose categories of functional equivalence upon stimulus configurations, to classify objects in such a way that a single type of response is given to any one member of a particular stimulus category. The criteria or nature of categorization have to be determined empirically for each species. Frogs may jump to a great variety of flies and also to a specific range of dummy-stimuli, provided the stimuli preserve specifiable characteristics of the “real thing.”
Furthermore, most higher animals have a certain capacity for discrimination. They may learn or spontaneously begin to differentiate certain aspects within the first global category, perhaps by having their attention directed to certain details or by sharpening their power of observation. In this differentiation process initial categories may become subdivided and become mutually exclusive, or a number of coexisting general and specific categories or partially overlapping categories may result. Again, the extent of a species’ differentiation capacity is biologically given and must be ascertained empirically for each species. Rats cannot make the same range of distinctions that dogs can make, and the latter are different in this respect from monkeys. The interspecific differences cannot merely be explained by differences in peripheral sensory thresholds. Apparently, a function of higher, central processes is involved that to do with cognitive organization.
Most primates and probably many species in other mammalian orders have the capacity to relate various categories to one another and thus to respond to relations between things rather than to things themselves; an example is “to respond to the largest of any collection of things.” Once more, it is a matter of empirical research to discover the limits of relations that a species is capable of responding to.
In summary, most animals organize the sensory world by a process of categorization, and from this basic mode of organization two further processes derive: differentiation or discrimination, and interrelating of categories or the perception of and tolerance for transformations（Chapter Seven）. In man these …are usually called (P. 332) concept-formation; …….identical across species.
總之，大多數動物運用分類的過程來組織感覺世界，且從這基本的組織模式中取得二更遠的過程︰區別或者辨別，且種類的相互關連或者感覺是容許轉變的(第7章)。Complete and translate the whole paragraph.