Resources for Communication Problems

Saturday, March 1, 2008




The human nervous system, which consists of the CNS (brain and spinal cord)and PNS (spinal and cranial nerves), is the generator of the electrical and chemical energy that controls body parts and their functions. The brain is responsible for initiating, controlling, and regulating all sensorimotor and cognitive (mental) functions. The spinal cord mediates sensory and motor commands, both somatic and visceral, to and from body parts that interact with the environment. The bony shell of the skull; the vertebral column; and the dural, arachnoid, and pial layers of the meninges protect the CNS. CSF in the subarachnoid space also helps protect the brain and spinal cord by serving as a mechanical buffer. Embryologically, the brain is derived from three vesicles; prosencephalon, mesencephalon, and rhombencephalon. The cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, limbic lobe, thalamus, hypothalamus, and lateral and third ventricles are derived from the prosencephalon. The mesencephalon decelops into the midbrain and cerebral aqueduct, whereas the rhombencephalon gives rise to the pons, cerebellum, medulla oblongata, and fourth ventricle . Each of these structures serves a specific sensorimotor or regulating function. The PNS, which includes spinal and cranial nerves, extends to organs, muscles, joints, blood vessels, and skin surfaces, forming an extensive network of cables and fine wires through the body. The PNS consists of the somatic and autonomic nervous systems. The somatic motor and sensory nerves innervate skeletal muscles, whereas the autonomic sensory and motor nerves innervate the visceral organs and glands. Cranial nerves regulate the sensory and motor functions of the face and head.

人類的神經系統是由中樞神經系統(大腦和脊spinal cord)和周邊神經系統(脊髓___spinal nerves和大腦神經) consist of,是電位和化學能量的產生器,能控制身體的很多部位和他們的功能。大腦是負責開始initiate、控制和管理所有知覺__sensorimotor認知cognitive (mental)的功能。脊(spinal cord)調解mediate感覺和運動的控制,包括both身軀和內臟與環境的接收和傳輸交互作用to and from body parts that interact with the environment頭骨的骨頭bony shell of the skull;脊椎圓柱the vertebral column;硬膜蛛網膜;腦膜all保護中樞神經CNS is protected by 1 2 3. = 1 2 3 all protect CNS腦脊__CSF在蛛網膜下的空腔也幫助保護大腦和脊柱藉由扮演一個物理的緩衝器。胚胎學者認為embryologically大腦brain是起源於三個小囊泡;前腦、中腦mesencephalon和菱形腦。大腦半球、基底神經、邊緣體、丘腦、下丘腦,和側向及第三lateral and third ventricles皆來自於前腦。中腦mesencephalon發展成腦部中間midbrain和大腦導水管,然而whereas後腦rhombencephalon發生gives rise to腦橋pons、小腦、 延髓,和第四心室fourth ventricle。這些結構每個都serves a specific sensorimotor or regulating function可作一個特殊的感覺運動來用或做調控的作用。周邊神經系統包括脊髓神經和腦神經,延伸到器官、肌肉、關節、血管,和皮膚表面,forming an extensive network of cables and fine wires through the body形成像是電纜和細金屬絲穿越身體般的廣泛網路。周邊神經系統包括軀體神經系統和自主神經系統。__體運動神經__體感覺神經innervate skeletal muscles分布在骨骼肌引起刺激, 然而自主感覺神經和自主運動神經innervate the visceral organs and glands分布在內臟器官和腺體。腦神經調控臉部和頭部的感覺和運動功能。

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