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Resources for Communication Problems
Monday, March 10, 2008
The human cranial nerves are the result of evolutionary modifications to a basic vertebrate pattern of CNS organization, constructed of ~40 bilaterally symmetrical repeating segments. During development, the first 2 nerves ( olfactory [ CN I] and optic [ CN II] ) became elaborated as the forebrain and involve the thalamus before reaching the cortex. The remaining 10 cranial nerves originate from the brainstem and innervate the muscles of the head, neck, face, larynx, tongue, and pharynx. These muscles serve speech, resonance, swallowing, facial expression, chewing, and phonation. Besides serving special senses such as vision, audition, smell, and taste, the cranial nerves regulate autonomic secretive functions of glands in the oral, nasal, and orbital cavities.
人的腦神經The human cranial nerves are在中樞神經系統組織中，to a basic vertebrate pattern of CNS organization是___一種基本脊椎動物的樣式the result of evolutionary modifications是演化修改的結果，constructed of ~40 bilaterally symmetrical repeating segments是被建立在~40個雙向對稱重複的片段。在發展期間，前2對神經(嗅神經[CN I]和視神經[CN II])變得精細的如同前腦and involve the thalamus before reaching the cortex和神經在介入丘腦到達皮質之前。其餘的10對腦神經起源於腦幹並且支配頭、脖子、顏面、喉、舌頭和咽的肌肉。這些肌肉serve可作用為言語，共鳴，吞嚥，面部表情、咀嚼和發聲。除Besidesserving special senses such as vision, audition, smell, and taste可提供特別感覺之外，例如視覺、聽覺、嗅覺和味覺，腦神經___調控腺體在嘴、鼻和眼眶等autonomic secretive functions自律的秘密功能。
Some cranial nerves mediate only sensation, whereas others exclusively serve motor functions. However, most nerves have both sensory and motor functions. Some cranial nerves serve only a single functional component, whereas others contain fibers to serve two or more functional components. Several motor cranial nuclei receive corticobulbar projections from both sides of the motor cortex. This bilaterality of projection has important clinical implications for the motor speech processes.
一些腦神經mediate only sensation僅間接傳遞感覺，而其它腦神經卻完全作為運動功能。然而，絕大多數神經具有感覺和運動兩種功能。一些腦神經serve only a single functional component僅提供單一個功能成分，而其它腦神經contain fibers to serve包含纖維的能提供兩個或多個功能成分。有些motor cranial nuclei腦神經運動核接受corticobulbar projections from both sides of the motor cortex從運動皮質的兩邊的延髓皮質投射。This bilaterality這___兩側對稱的投射在運動言語過程具有重要臨床涵義。