Resources for Communication Problems

Saturday, January 5, 2008



The glossary is already arranged in alphabetical order. No need to enumerate them.

語聽二 9580016 呂智源 負責頁數:p464 interhemispheric~p464 kayser-fleisher




Function extending or occurring between hemispheres (as of the cerebrum)relating to a structure common to both cerebral hemispheres or a structure locate between them

2.interhemispheric(longitudinal) fissure


名詞解釋:The fissure between the two cerebral hemispheres in birdslong vertical fissure that marks the medial boundary of the cerebral hemispheres

3.internal arcuate fibers


名詞解釋:Internal arcuate fibers are the axons of second-order neurons contained within the gracile and cuneate nuclei of the medulla oblongata. These fibers cross (decussate) from one side of the medulla to the other to form the medial lemniscus. Part of the dorsal column-medial lemniscus system (second neuron), the internal arcuate fibers are important for relaying the sensation of fine touch and proprioception to the thalamus and ultimately to the cerebral cortex.

4.internal capsule


名詞解釋:The internal capsule is an area of white matter in the brain that separates the caudate nucleus and the thalamus from the lenticular nucleus. It consists of axonal fibres that run between the cerebral cortex and the pyramids of the medullaCollection of ascending and descending fibers at the diencephalic level

5.inter-external carotid anastomosis


名詞解釋:Surgically created vascular channel connecting the internal and the external carotid arterial system to restore the blood circulation in the case of cerebral ischemia

6.internal medullary lamina



Vertival layer of the white matter that divides the thalamus




An interneuron (also called relay neuron, association neuron or bipolar neuron) is a term used to describe a neuron which has two different common meaningsSpinal association neurons that interconnect other nerve cells and function to modify thw lower motor neuron response via facilitation or inhibition

8.interpeduncular fossa



The Interpeduncular fossa is a somewhat lozenge-shaped area of the base of the brain, limited in front by the optic chiasma, behind by the antero-superior surface of the pons, antero-laterally by the converging optic tracts, and postero-laterally by the diverging cerebral peduncles. The structures contained in it, from behind forward, are the posterior perforated substance, corpora mamillaria, tuber cinereum, infundibulum, and hypophysis.

9.interstitial fluid



Interstitial fluid (or tissue fluid, or intercellular fluid) is a solution which bathes and surrounds the cells of multicellular animals. It is the main component of the extracellular fluid, which also includes plasma and transcellular fluid. On average, a person has about 11 litres (2.4 imperial gallons) of interstitial fluid providing the cells of the body with nutrients and a means of waste removal.

10.interventricular foramen of Monro



In the brain, the interventricular foramina (or foramina of Monro) are channels that connect the paired lateral ventricles with the third ventricle at the midline of the brain. As channels, they allow cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) produced in the lateral ventricles to reach the third ventricle and then the rest of the brain's ventricular system. They also contain choroid plexus, a specialized CSF-producing structure, that is continuous with that of the lateral and third ventricles.

11.intracranial pressure



Intracranial pressure, (ICP), is the pressure exerted by the cranium on the brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the brain's circulating blood volume. ICP is a dynamic phenomenon constantly fluctuating in response to activities such as exercise, coughing, straining, arterial pulsation, and respiratory cycle. ICP is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and, at rest, is normally less than 10–15 mmHg. Changes in ICP are attributed to volume changes in one or more of the constituents contained in the cranium.

12.intrafusal fibers



Intrafusal fibers are muscle fibers that comprise the muscle spindle. These fibers are walled off from the rest of the muscle by a collagen sheath. This sheath has a spindle or "fusiform" shape, hence the name "intrafusal." While the intrafusal fibers are wrapped with sensory receptors, their counterpart, extrafusal muscle fibers are the ones responsible for the power-generating component of muscle and are innervated by motor neurons. It is by the sensory information from these two intrafusal fiber types that one is able to judge the position of their muscle, and the rate at which it is changing.




Related to structure within one hemisphere

14.intralaminar centromedian nucleus



Largest of the intralaminar nuclei in the thalamus and has extensive afferents and efferents to the brain and brainstemIn the anatomy of the brain, the centromedian nucleus, also known as the centrum medianum, (CM or Cm-Pf) is a part of the intralaminar nucleus (ILN) of the thalamus. There are two centromedian nuclei arranged bilaterally. It contains about 2000 neurons per cubic millimetre and has a volume of about 300 cubic millimetres with 600,000 neurons in total.




An ion is an atom or molecule which has lost or gained one or more electrons, making it positively or negatively charged. A negatively charged ion, which has more electrons in its electron shells than it has protons in its nuclei, is known as an anion (pronounced /ˈænaɪən/; an-eye-on) due to its attraction to anodes. Conversely, a positively-charged ion, which has fewer electrons than protons, is known as a cation (pronounced /ˈkætaɪən/; cat-eye-on) due to its attraction to cathodes. An ion consisting of a single atom is called a monatomic ion, but if it consists of two or more atoms, it is a polyatomic ion. Polyatomic ions containing oxygen, such as carbonate and sulfate, are called oxyanions. Ions are denoted in the same way as electrically neutral atoms and molecules except for the presence of a superscript indicating the sign of the net electric charge and the number of electrons lost or gained, if more than one. For example: H+, SO42−. An alternate way of denoting charge is like this: SO42-.

16.ion selectivity




Membrane permeability to selected ions

17.ionic equilibrium




Electrical potential difference that regulates the ionic concentration gradient across the cell membrane




In sciences dealing with the anatomy of animals, precise anatomical terms of location are necessary for a variety of reasons. Non-scientists often wonder why zoological and human anatomists use complex terminology to describe locations on a body, when common terms like "up", "down", "top" and "bottom" could be used instead. Two major problems arise with common usage, however. First, they tend to be language-specific, requiring translation into equivalent, or almost-equivalent, terms in other languages. They are not universal terms that may be readily understood by zoologists speaking other languages. Differences in terminology remain a problem that, to some extent, still separates the fields of zoological anatomy (sometimes called zootomy) and human (medical) anatomy. The second, and larger, problem is caused by the very nature of animals. Most animals are capable of moving relative to their environment (see Fig. 1). So while "up" might refer to the top of someone's head when they are standing upright, the same term ("up") would describe their belly while they are lying down. Therefore, standardized anatomical (and zootomical) terms of location have been developed, usually based on Latin words, to enable all biological and medical scientists to precisely delineate and communicate information about animal (including human) bodies and their component organs.





Colored contractile fibers that regulate pupil size



名詞解釋:In medicine, ischemia (Greek ισχαιμία, isch- is restriction, hema or haema is blood) is a restriction in blood supply, generally due to factors in the blood vessels, with resultant damage or dysfunction of tissue. It may also be spelled ischaemia or ischæmia.





Narrow passage or tissue strip connecting two larger parts




The mesencephalic duct, also known as the aqueduct of Sylvius or the cerebral aqueduct, contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is within the mesencephalon (or midbrain) and connects the third ventricle in the diencephalon to the fourth ventricle, which is between the pons and cerebellum.




A karyotype is the observed characteristics (number, type, shape etc) of the chromosomes of an individual or species. In normal diploid organisms, autosomal chromosomes are present in two identical copies, although polyploid cells have multiple copies of chromosomes and haploid cells have single copies. The chromosomes are arranged and displayed (often on a photo) in a standard format known as an idiogram: in pairs, ordered by size and position of centromere for chromosomes of the same size. Karyotypes are used to study chromosomal aberrations, and may be used to determine other macroscopically visible aspects of an individual's genotype, such as sex. In order to be able to see the chromosomes and determine their size and internal pattern, they are chemically labeled with a dye ("stained"). The pattern of individual chromosomes is called chromosome banding, whereas the study of whole sets of chromosomes is known as karyology. Normal human karyotypes contain 22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. Normal karyotypes for women contain two X chromosomes and are denoted 46,XX; men have both an X and a Y chromosome denoted 46,XY. However, some individuals have other karyotypes with added or missing sex chromosomes, including 47,XYY, 47,XXY, 47,XXX and 45,X. The karyotype 45,Y does not occur, as an embryo without an X chromosome cannot survive.

24.Kayser- Fleischer ring



The rings, which consist of copper deposits where the cornea meets the sclera, in Descemet's membrane, first appear as a crescent at the top of the cornea. Eventually, a second crescent forms below, at 6 o'clock, and ultimately completely encircles the corneaIn later stages, the brownish rings can be seen with the naked eye. In earlier stages, an optometrist's or ophthalmologist's slit lamp reveals the golden brown or greenish-yellow crescents.Circle formed by the accumulation of copper around the corneaSeen in Wilson disease

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