Resources for Communication Problems

Monday, January 21, 2008




Visceral muscles

Muscles of the heart, the spleen, the great vessels, and the digestive, respiratory, urogenital, endocrine, and speech systems, which are autonomi-cally controlled.

臟腑肌- 肌肉〈包括骨骼的橫紋肌,內臟器官的平滑肌和心肌三種〉來自於心臟,在管道、消化藥、慢性呼吸疾病、泌尿生殖器、內分泌和語言系統,那些是屬於自主性的控制。


Related to the viscera and body.

內臟與軀體- 內臟和器官本體有關係的。

Visual acuity

Assessment of the ability to resolve the details of distant objects. Tested with Snellen chart.

視力的銳敏- 估計細節能力辨識物體距離。


Visual agnosia

Impaired ability to recognize a printed object.

視覺的識別不能- 識別物體痕跡能力受損。

Visual field

Area seen by both eyes when looking straight ahead.

視野- 一對眼睛看向前面平直的範圍。

Visual field defects

Area of blindness involving the visual fields.

視野的缺陷- 失辨症(失明)牽涉視野。

Visual reflexes

Include papillary constriction in response to light and lens accommodation for near vision.

視覺反射- 在視覺附近受光線反應使乳突狹窄和水晶體調節。

Vitreous humor

Jelly-like substance in the posterior cav-ity of the eye. Prevents the eyeball from collapsing and contributes to intraocular pressure.

玻璃狀體液- 膠狀物物質在眼睛腔的後面。預防眼球萎陷和眼球內的壓力。

Wada test

Procedure in which the cerebral cortex is tran-siently anesthetized with sodium amobarbital for assessing its functions.

瓦達試驗- 此實驗程序是麻醉大腦的皮質注入鈉異戊巴比特魯(慎靜、催眠)液的功能。

Wallerian degeneration

Structural changes in a distal por-tion of an axon after it is sectioned and disconnected from the cell body in result of an injury.

Waller氏變性(神經纖維脂肪變性)- 結構構造改變在遠側的部分神經細胞軸索部份片塊和沒有系統由於身體內細胞損傷。

Watershed area

Tertiary brain area located peripheral to the primary distribution areas for the anterior, posterior, and middle cerebral arteries. This area is highly suscepti-ble to vascular insufficiency because of its vascular dependency on multiple arteries.

流域區域- 第三的大腦區域位在末梢的前面的分布區域、後面的和中間大腦的動脈。此區域在高處容易感染機能不足的血管,因為血管分部依靠在動脈組成。

Weber test

Tuning fork test in which the stem of a tuning fork is placed on the midline of the forehead. Later-alization to the poorer-hearing ear suggests a conductive hearing loss. Lateralization to the better-hearing ear sug-gests a sensorineural hearing loss in the other ear.

Weber氏試驗- 調音叉子置於頭部中線測驗將音叉震動後兩耳聽力測驗。

Wernicke area

language association cortex in the left temporoparietal lobe concerned with the comprehend-sion and formulation of language.

Wernick 區域- 語言的聯想作用皮質在左葉區有關理解和語言的構想。

Wernicke encephalopathy

Syndrome of nutritional defi-ciency largely found in chronic alcoholics and character-ized by ocular motility (ophthalmology), nystagmus, gait disturbances, and mental confusion.

Wernick 腦病- 併發症狀由於營養的不足大部分找到慢性酒毒性特徵,眼的能動性的(眼科學),眼球震顫,擾亂步態和精神混亂。

White matter

General term for the axonal bundles in the central nervous system.

白質- 在神經經纖維中心的神經系統。

William syndrome

Congenital disorder caused by a contin-uous gene deletion and marked by distinctive facial and structural features, cognitive impairments (mental retar-dation and attention deficits), and hypercalcemia (ele-vated blood calcium levels).

William 徽候群- 先天性的疾病引起的連續基因染色體缺失和顯著特殊面的和構造式特徵,認識知能遲鈍和注意力不足,高鈣血症(血液升高鈣的程度)

Withdrawal reflex

Reflexive movement causing the withdrawal of a limb by flexion at more than one joint in response to a painful stimulus on the skin surface.

神經肌肉反射退縮- 反身運動引起四肢體更多的關節退縮彎曲反應自體紅血球過敏產生反應刺激在皮膚表面。

x-linked inheritance

Genetic inheritance mode where dis-eases or traits are transmitted by a gene or genes on the X (sex) chromosome.

遺傳性的- 基因的遺傳方式疾病特徵傳遞遺傳在X的染色體。

Yolk sac, primary

Transient membranous structure of the embryo that disappears completely.

卵黃囊,原發性- 短暫的膜構造組織胚胎完全消失。

Yolk sac, secondary

Specialized structure that separates from the embryo early in development and may persist through birth. Its proximal stalk gives rise to ileal (Meckel) diverticulum.

卵黃囊,次發性- 專門單一組織構造來自早熟的胚胎發展成的和持久性的分娩穿過,近側的莖給升起迴腸。在迴腸末端由未消失之卵黃囊而來。

Young-Helmholtz trichromic theory

Relates color percep-tion to the activation of three different types of cone cells.

Young-Helmholtz 三色氏學說- 辨認顏色的活化作用在三種不同的圓錐視椎細胞類型。

Zone of lissauer

Outermost region of the spinal dorsal horn, which receives fibers carrying pain and tempera-ture from the body.

Lissauer 氏區- 最外邊的部位脊柱背側的角狀構造,在身體內接受纖維物質帶來疼痛和溫度。


Fertilized ovum (first stage in human devel-opment).

胚胞(受孕卵)- 受精卵(第一階期在人類的成長發育)

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