撰寫人：9580047 王思婷NC453- Glossary
Vessel carrying blood from the heart to body parts.
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BLOOD VESSELS Arteries take blood away from the heart. They usually contain blood rich in oxygen. Arteries have elastic muscular walls that can dilate and constrict as each pulse of blood goes through. Veins take blood back to the heart. They contain valves that allow a one-way flow of blood. Veins are less muscular than arteries. Capillaries are the smallest and most numerous of blood vessels. The capillary diameter is only the width of one red blood cell, so blood travels slowly through capillaries. The capillary wall is only one cell thick to allow exchange of nutrients and oxygen into, and wastes such as carbon dioxide out of the body cells. A relatively thick-walled, muscular, pulsating blood vessel conveying blood away from the heart. With the exception of the pulmonary and umbilical arteries, the arteries contain red or oxygenated blood. At the major arteries, the arterial branches are listed separately following the designation branches.
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Definition of Artery： Artery: A vessel that carries blood high in oxygen content away from the heart to the farthest reaches of the body. Since blood in arteries is usually full of oxygen, the hemoglobin in the red blood cells is oxygenated. The resultant form of hemoglobin (oxyhemoglobin) is what makes arterial blood look bright red. Arteries are part of the efferent wing of the circulatory system. ("Efferent" from the Latin "ex", out + "ferre", to bear = to bear out or carry away. What the arteries are carrying away is blood from the heart.) By contrast, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood low in oxygen content from the body back to the heart. The deoxygenated form of hemoglobin (deoxyhemoglobin) in venous blood makes it appear dark. Veins are part of the afferent wing of the circulatory system which returns blood to the heart.
Brain cell anoxia secondary to a reduction in the regular exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
語源： (1) New Latin 現代拉丁語 (2) from Greek asphuxia [stopping of the pulse] 源自 希臘語 asphuxia [脈搏停止] (3) a- [not] * see a- 1 a- [不] *參見 a-1 (4) sphuxis [heartbeat] from sphuzein sphug- [to throb] sphuxis [心跳] 源自 sphuzein sphug- [搏動]
Asphyxia of newborn新生兒窒息： 生後1分鐘內，無自主呼吸或未建立規律呼吸，而導致低氧血症和混合性酸中毒。 Clinical manifestation 缺氧：早期胎動增加，胎心率≧160次/分；晚期胎動減少甚至消失，<100；羊水amniotic fluid混有胎糞。 Apgar scores ------ 0,1,2分 Apearance : cyanosis or pallor red body,cyanosis limbs red Pulse a minute : no ＜100 ＞100 Grimace : no lower crying Activity : Disappear flexed limbs active Respiration: No slow and irregular normal 1分鐘評分反映窒息嚴重程度 8-10 scores : normal 4-7 scores : mild or cyanosis asphyxia 0-3 scores : severe or pallor asphyxia 胎齡小早產兒成熟度低，無窒息，但評分低 併發症： CNS，呼吸，心血管，泌尿，代謝，消化
Inhalation of water or food into the bronchial tree.
1. Removal, by suction, of a gas, fluid, or tissue from a body cavity or organ from unusual accumulations, or from a container. 2. The inspiratory sucking into the airways of fluid or any foreign material, especially gastric contents or food. 3. A surgical technique for cataract, requiring a small corneal incision, severance of the lens capsule, fragmentation of the lens material, and removal with a needle.
Origin: L. Spirare = to breathe
Short and long fibers that interconnect different regions within a cerebral hemisphere.
nerve fibers interconnecting subdivisions of the cerebral cortex of the same hemisphere or different segments of the spinal cord on the same side.
association fibers http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Association_fibers
association ( secondary ) cortex
Functionally uncommitted regions of the cerebral cortex at birth that later assume integration of multimodality information and include the parietal-temporal-occipital association cortex, prefrontal association cortex, and limbic association cortex.
generic term denoting the large expanses of the cerebral cortex that are not sensory or motor in the customary sense, but are involved in advanced stages of sensory information processing, multisensory integration, or sensorimotor integration.
Muscle weakness caused by cerebellar dysfunctioning.
Origin: Gr. Asthenes = without strength Asthenia is from the Greek asthenes, from a- (without) + sthenos (strength) [G. astheneia, weakness, fr. a- priv. + sthenos, strength]
Asthenia: Weakness. Lack of energy and strength. Loss of strength. The word asthenia is not much used in medicine today, although it is a prominent part of myasthenia, a loss of muscle strength, as in myasthenia gravis.
Causes of asthenia： The condition is commonly seen in patients suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome, sleep disorders or chronic disorders of the heart, lungs or kidneys. Differentiating between asthenia and true muscular weakness is often difficult, and in time asthenia in chronic disorders is seen to progress into a primary weakness. Also a condition in which the body lacks or has lost strength either as a whole or in any of its parts. General asthenia occurs in many chronic wasting diseases, such as anemia and cancer, and is probably most marked in diseases of the adrenal gland. Asthenia may be limited to certain organs or systems of organs, as in asthenopia, characterized by ready fatiguability. Asthenia is also a side effect of Ritonavir(Protease Inhibitor used in HIV treatment) Common causes of asthenia： Addison's disease Anemia Anxiety Chemotherapy Chronic fatigue syndrome Chronic pain deconditioning/sedentary lifestyle Dehydration and electrolyte disturbance Depression Diabetes Fibromyalgia Heart disease Hypothyroidism Infections Medications including amiodarone and Anastrazole Narcotics Paraneoplastic syndrome Pregnancy/postpartum Pulmonary disease Renal disease Sleep disorders
Focusing disorder in which vertical and horizontal rays focus at two different points on the retina. Results from irregular lens and/or cornea curvature.
coined (in form astigmatic) 1849 by English scientist William Whewell (1794-1866), from Gk. a- "without" + stigmatos gen. of stigma "a mark, spot, puncture."
散光是眼睛的一種屈光不正常狀況，與角膜的弧度有關。 人類的眼睛並不是完美的，如果角膜在某一角度的弧度較彎，而另一些角度則較扁平，光線便不能準確地聚焦在視網膜上，這種情況便稱為散光。散光患者看東西時會較難細微地看清景物。一般情況下，散光並不會獨自出現，患者的眼睛通常都會伴有近視或遠視。 散光的矯正方法，主要是配戴眼鏡，散光眼鏡在某一角度會有特別的弧度，以矯正患者眼睛在該角度的散光；隱形眼鏡或激光矯視手術亦可矯正散光的問題。 除了角膜外，晶狀體的弧度不一致，也是造成散光的另一原因。
什麼是散光？ 又稱為「亂視」。光線進入眼球角膜與水晶體後，原本應聚焦為一點，無法完全聚焦落在視網膜上，因而無法集中成清晰影像。又分為「規則亂視」與「不規則亂視」。 一.近視：進入眼球之平行光，集焦點於視網膜之前方。 二.遠視：平行光焦點於視網膜後方。 三.散光(亂視)：因角膜或水晶體等之折射面不成球形。
Test for Astigmatism Steps: 1) read at 6 metres 2) uncorrected 3) looks at the astigmatic fan pattern with each eye separately Detect any difference or blurring of images of lines at any meridian. If positive and significant, please seek optometrist or eye doctor for further investigation and possible optical correction. Remarks: If you have significant degree of short-sightedness (e.g. > -4.0D) or long-sightedness (e.g. > +4.0D), please wear your glasses upon testing. 散光測試步驟： 1) 在距離螢光屏六米之情況下觀看圖像。 2) 如眼睛患有屈光不正( 如近視、遠視等 )，需除下眼鏡進行測試。 3) 用手蓋左眼，右眼凝視扇形的圖像。 4) 重複步驟1 至 3 檢查左眼。 如發現在各直線之間出現模糊現象，或橫及直線的清晰程度有分別，請聯絡驗光師或眼科醫生作詳細檢查。 註：如閣下患上超過400度近視或遠視，請戴上眼鏡才進行測試。
Astigmatism: A common form of visual impairment in which part of an image is blurred, due to an irregularity in the curvature of the front surface of the eye, the cornea. The curve of the cornea is shaped more like an American football or a rugby ball rather than a normal spherical basketball. Light rays entering the eye there are not uniformly focused on the retina. Rays entering through the more-curved surface are focused before the rays coming through the less-curved surface. The light is focused clearly along one plane but is blurred along the other. The result is blurred vision at all distances. Only part of what you are looking at is in clear focus at any one time. Astigmatism may be so slight that it causes no problems. Almost everyone has some degree of astigmatism. Significant astigmatism can cause headaches and eye strain and seriously blur vision. Astigmatism may contribute to poor school performance but is often not detected during routine eye screening in schools. It is a refractive error, an error of focusing, that may coexist with other refractive errors like near- sightedness or far-sightedness. Astigmatism is corrected with slightly cylindrical lenses that have greater light-bending power in one direction than the other. Using these lenses elongates objects in one direction and shortens them in the other, much like looking into a distorting wavy mirror at a circus The elongated figures in the paintings of the great Spanish painter El Greco, it has been suggested, might have been painted while he wore lenses to correct astigmatism. This is clearly wrong since such lenses were not yet in use in El Greco's day (1541-1614) and without them, what an astigmatic saw would have been blurred, not elongated. X-rays also show that El Greco first sketched more normal figures and then elongated them for whatever effect, religious or artistic, he wished to achieve. Astigmatism was, in fact, not recognized until the 19th century. Only thereafter were lenses devised to correct it. The word "astigmatism" comes from the Greek "a-" (without) + "stigma" (point) = "without a point" referring to there being no point of convergence for the light rays on the retina.