Resources for Communication Problems

Wednesday, January 2, 2008


NC453G-4王思婷 9580047

撰寫人:9580047 王思婷NC453- Glossary


Neuroglia cells that support nerve cells and contribute to blood-brain barrier.



The largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the blood-brain barrier. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with microglia) respond to injury. Astrocytes have high- affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitter, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is not well understood.

Astrocyte in association with a blood vessel.


Neurons and Brain


Impaired ability to coordinate different muscles in the performance of a skilled movement.



Synonym: asynergy.

Origin: G. A-priv. + syn, with, + ergon, work


Origin: G. A-priv. + syn, with, + ergon, work



Lack of coordination in sequential voluntary muscular activities,resulting from a cerebellar pathology.



Origin: Gr. Taxis = order


Ataxia: Wobbliness. Incoordination and unsteadiness due to the brain's failure to regulate the body's posture and regulate the strength and direction of limb movements. Ataxia is usually a consequence of disease in the brain, specifically in the cerebellum which lies beneath the back part of the cerebrum.

ataxic dysarthria

Acquired motor speech disorder subsequent to cerebellar pathology. Characterized by imprecise speech, articulatory breakdowns, and impaired stress applications.


Origin: Gr. Arthroun = to utter distinctly


小腦病變: 指的是「運動失調型」的吶吃症(ataxic dysarthria)。 1.病因: 小腦的退化 多發性硬化 中風 有毒的和新陳代謝的障礙;病毒傳染 CP 創傷性的腦部損害和腫瘤 2.病變部位:小腦 3.言語動作控制:呼吸和言語動作無法協調;有限的舌頭活動 4.發生率:17% 5.言語行為特徵:語音歪曲,子音和母音不正確的構音;音調、語調不當;過度或平均的重音;有兩種言語偏差類型,此兩種現象互相抵觸,因此很少出現在同時出現在同一患者身上: 一是「間斷性」構音器官的整合失常,加上說話的節拍韻律失調、音調與音量不規則或不穩定。 另一種為說話韻律上的轉換困難,如將每個字音拉長、或每個聲調強弱不分,字與字間無斷音,如同機器人說話,每個字音調都是平平的,中間沒有段落。

Dysarthria caused by cerebellar lesions.


Lipid deposit that narrows the arterial wall occurring in atherosclerosis.



Origin: L, fr. Gr, fr. Grats, meal.

[G. athr, gruel, + -ma, tumor]

Origin: L, Fr. Gr, Fr. Grats, Meal. A Fatty Deposit In the Intima (Inner Lining) of an artery; can obstruct Blood flow.Relating To the Condition of Arteries and Arterioles, Atheroma is the Degeneration of the Lining of these Tissues.

Atheroma: A fatty deposit in the intima (inner lining) of an artery, resulting from atherosclerosis. Also called an atherosclerotic plaque, arterial plaque or, simply, a plaque.

What is atheroma? Patches of atheroma are like small fatty lumps which develop within the inside lining of arteries (blood vessels). A patch of atheroma makes an artery narrower, which may reduce the blood flow. Over time, patches of atheroma can become larger and thicker. The common cause of angina is due to atheroma which narrows one or more of the arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. Sometimes a blood clot (thrombosis) forms over a patch of atheroma, and completely blocks the blood flow. Depending on the artery affected, this can cause a heart attack, a stroke, or other serious problems

Atheroma / Atherosclerosis Atheroma is what happens when the blood vessels become furred up over the years with fatty deposits. This stops the blood flowing so well and can encourage the formations of blood clots that can cause strokes.

Web source for this picture?

Web source for this picture?


Process of narrowing of the arterial lumen owing to accumulation of fatty substances (cholesterol and triglycerides) and lipids along the intimal walls of the medianum and larger blood vessels. Results in the formation of an atherosclerotic plaque that decreases the size of the arterial lumen and is a common cause of hypertension.



Atherosclerosis: A process of progressive thickening and hardening of the walls of medium-sized and large arteries as a result of fat deposits on their inner lining. Risk factors for atherosclerosis include high levels of "bad" cholesterol, high blood pressure (hypertension), smoking, diabetes and a genetic family history of atherosclerotic disease. Atherosclerosis is responsible for much coronary artery disease (angina and heart attacks) and many strokes.

No comments: