Resources for Communication Problems

Sunday, January 20, 2008




單字翻譯─Neuroscience for the study of communicative disorders

我負責的是peptide neurotransmitters, perfusion MRI, periaqueductal gray matter, perilymph, peripheral nerve injuries, peripheral nervous system(PNS), peripheral neuropathies, peristalsis, peritoneal cavity, periventricular zone, permeability, pernicious anemia, persistent vegetative state, PET, pH, phagocyte, phagocytosis, phantom pain, phenobarbital, phenytoin (duphenylhydantoin, Dilantin), phonologic agraphia, phonologic dyslexia, photopigment.

peptide neurotransmitters 胜肽神經傳導素

→Large molecules consisting of two or more amino acids that can function as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators.可以作為傳遞介質或是調節者的2或多個銨基組成的大分子

*peptide─胜肽 *neurotransmitter─神經遞質/傳導素(synapse分泌)

§ neuron─神經傳導細胞,神經元(包刮所屬之軸突、樹突)

§ transmitter─傳遞介質;傳導物質

perfusion MRI

→Neuroimaging technique that maps out the function of the cerebral cortex by measuring microscopic blood flow levels in the cerebral capillaries.藉由測量腦內微血管的細微血流量描繪大腦皮質的神經成像技術

*perfusion (液體)撒佈;灌注,(向靜脈內,或其他通道)

*MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)─核磁共振影像技術,為一利用核磁共振行成清楚的人腦或是人體影像技術


periaqueductal gray matter

→Region surrounding the cerebral aqueduct in the midbrain. 中腦中的周圍大腦導管部位

*peri- ─周圍;環繞;接近 *aqueductal─()管的

*gray matter─灰質


perilymph 外淋巴

→Fluid contained in the bony labyrinth (scala vestibule and tympani ) that protects the membranous labyrinth.骨性迷路(鼓室階和前庭階)中含有的保護膜性迷路的液體

*peri- ─外部環繞的 *lymph淋巴液


peripheral nerve injuries 周邊神經

→Injuries confined to nerves in the peripheral system, such as cranial nerves and/or spinal nerves. 限於在周邊神經系統的神經損傷,像是大腦神經或脊神經

*peripheral─末梢的;周圍的 * injury─損害


peripheral nervous system(PNS) 周邊神經系統

→Part of the nervous system that includes all the cranial and spinal nerves.部分的神經系統中,包含所有的大腦神經和脊神經

* peripheral─末梢的;周圍的


peripheral neuropathies 周邊神經病變

→Disease conditions of peripheral nerves, such as carpal tunnel.周邊神經的疾病,像是腕管

* neuropathies神經病變

peristalsis 蠕動

→Wavelike contracting movements in a hollow structure that propel its contents.像波動般的收縮,以中空狀態向前推進身體


peritoneal cavity 腹膜腔

→Potential abdominal space between the layers of the parietal and visceral peritoneum.在腹膜壁和內層的腹部空間

* peritoneal─腹膜的 *cavity─腔;洞

periventricular zone

→Hypothalamic region that medially borders the third ventricle.視丘下部中間的第三腦室

* periventricular─室周圍的,(腦室或心室) *zone─;

permeability 滲透性

→Property of brain vessels that restricts the passage of selective fluid and noxious substances.大腦中的脈管特性,能限制某些液體和有害物質的通過


pernicious anemia 惡性貧血

→Anemic state characterized by a progressive decrease in red blood corpuscles. Can be fatal if not treated.一種紅血球進行性減少、會越來越嚴重的貧血,若不接受治療會有致命性

* pernicious─惡性的 *anemia─貧血

persistent vegetative state (植物人)

→Altered consciousness state in which patients are not aware of the environment and display no cognitive function but t breath on their own, and follow the sleep-wake cycle.患者的意識狀態變為無法察覺週遭環境且無法表現認知功能,但可以自己呼吸,生活的週期只有睡覺和醒來。

* persistent─持久性的 * vegetative─植物性、植物狀態的

PET(Positron emission tomography)

→Imaging technique that measures live real-time cellular metabolism using radioactive substances(isotopes).用放射性物質(同位素)測量生命細胞新陳代謝的影像技術

* Positron─正電;陽電子 * emission─放射性的 * tomography─X光斷層照相,(可拍攝出人體各部切面之照片)



→Indicates the degree of acidity and alkalinity in a solution, with 7 being the neutral value. A number less than 7 marks increased acidity, whereas a number greater than 7 indicates alkalinity.酸性和鹼性溶液的指標,pH值為7者是中性溶液,低於7則屬於酸性溶液,高於7則屬於鹼性溶液

phagocyte 吞噬細胞

→Macrophagic microglia cells that ingest cellular debris.巨大吞噬細菌的小神經膠質細胞(中樞神經之活動吞噬細胞),可嚥下細胞廢物、碎屑


phagocytosis 吞噬作用

→Process of digestion by cells referring to the removal of dead tissue by microglia cells.指小神經膠質細胞移除死掉的組織的消化過程


phantom pain

→Sensation of pain originating from the area of an amputated limb.源於斷肢的疼痛,是一種幻想的感覺

* phantom─幻像;人體模型;放射線刺激器 * pain─疼痛

Phenobarbital 苯巴比妥(藥名)

→Family of drugs commonly used in the treatment of epilepsy.一種常用以治療癲癇的藥物

phenytoin ( diphenylhydantoin, Dilantin) 雙苯內醯脲(抗痙攣劑,治療癲癇).

→Drugs used in the treatment of seizure activity.用以治療急性發作、陣發的癲癇(由於大腦陣發性功能失常所致)藥物

phonologic agraphia

→Writing disorder characterized by an impaired ability to convert phoneme to grapheme to phoneme.書寫不能,將因素轉換成字母的能力受損

* phonologic─語音體系的 * agraphia─失寫症

phonologic dyslexia

→Impaired ability to convert grapheme to phoneme, resulting in poor reading ability, particularly for pronounceable pseudo-words.將字母轉換為因素的能力受損,導致閱讀能力差,尤其是發音相似字

* dyslexia─識字困難


→Rhodopsin or a visual pigment that absorbs light and undergoes structural changes, leading to the generation of an action potential.吸收光線和結構變化的視網膜色素,使得產生動作電位


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