A necrotic stage marked by a reduction in size of a cell.
Crossing of motor fibers that takes place in the most caudal medulla and accounts for contralateral motor organization.
錐體徑的大部份纖維在Medulla oblongata (延腦)下緣與脊髓交接處交叉到對側，這個交叉處稱為「錐體交叉」。
Descending corticospinal fibers mediating motor impulses to spinal motor neurons.
the fibers that compose the corticospinal tract.
The motor fibers of the corticospinal tract named because of their location in the medullary pyramids.
錐體路徑包括：基底核（basal ganglia）、視丘下核（subthalamicnucleus）、黑質體（substantia nigra）、紅核（red nucleus）和腦幹網狀系統（brain stem reticular formation）。
Primary olfactory cortex located on the medial rostral region of the uncus and hippocampal gyrus.
One of four parts of the visual field.
One quarter of a circle. In anatomy, roughly circular areas are divided for descriptive purposes into quadrants. The abdomen is divided into right upper and lower and left upper and lower quadrants by a horizontal and a vertical line intersecting at the umbilicus. Quadrants of the ocular fundus (superior and inferior nasal, superior and inferior temporal) are demarcated by a horizontal and a vertical line intersecting at the optic disk. The tympanic membrane is divided into anterosuperior, anteroinferior, posterosuperior, and posteroinferior quadrants by a line drawn across the diameter of the drum in the axis of the handle of the malleus and another intersecting the first at right angles at the umbo.
Paralysis of all four limbs.
Collection of reticular cells located along the midline in the brainstem that diffusely project to all levels of the brain.
核縫、腦縫，Any of the various unpaired nerve cell groups that are located in and along the median plane of the mesencephalic and rhombencephalic tegmenta that include neurons with serotonin-carrying axons that extend to the hypothalamus, septum, hippocampus, and cingulate gyrus.
rapid eye movement（REM）sleep
Sleep stage characterized by high-frequency and low-amplitude EEG waves, vivid dreams, and rapid eye movements.
睡眠由四～五週期組成，每一個週期約 90 ~ 100 分鐘左右，其中又包含兩種型態的睡眠，即非快速動眼期睡眠（NREM）及快速動眼期睡眠（REM）。快速動眼期又稱矛盾型睡眠，大腦是活動的，而身體則是休息的，在腦波圖記錄上與 NREM 的第一階段相似，但生理上的狀況卻有很大的差異。此時，呼吸與脈搏速率皆增加且呈不規則狀態，血壓的波動也大，大部份的夢都出現在此期，所以又叫做夢期，這個時候也比較容易醒來。
Genetic mode of inheritance in which both parents transmit the same affected alleles. It results in 25% probability of this dysfunctional gene transmission form both parents and the child being affected with the condition.
Inheritance in which a trait is recessive.
A neuronal circuitry in which an action potential is excitatory to motor units in an agonistic skeletal muscle and is excitatory to an inhibitory interneuron that, in turn, reduces the excitability of motor units in the paired antagonistic muscles. This ensures that when one muscle is contracting, its paired muscle is relaxing.
Innervation of one of the paired muscles in which the response is opposite to the response of the other muscle connected to the same joint.
Medbrain cell cluster that relays cerebellar output to the motor cortex and spinal cord.
紅核，中腦網狀結構裡一種重要的神經核，含有運動神經元的細胞體，並構成將衝動傳向脊髓運動神經元的轉運站。a large, well-defined, somewhat elongated cell mass, reddish-gray in the fresh brain, located in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. This nucleus is composed of a caudal pars magnocellularis [TA] (magnocellular part [TA]), a rostral pars parvocellularis [TA] (parvocellular part [TA]) and a small pars posteromedialis [TA] (posteromedial part [TA], dorsomedial part [TAalt]). The nucleus receives a massive projection from the contralateral half of the cerebellum by way of the superior cerebellar peduncle and an additional projection from the ipsilateral motor cortex. Projections from the anterior interposed nucleus and motor cortex to the red nucleus are somatopically organized. Its efferent connections are with the contralateral rhombencephalic reticular formation and spinal cord by way of the rubrobulbar and rubrospinal tracts. Rubrospinal fibers have somatotopic origin.
The sensation of pain form a visceral organ is sensed as originating form another body part. The explanation for the false localization is that the visceral structures do not have separate afferent pathways, rather they synapse on the same neurons in the dorsal root ganglion that also receives somatic sensation from the superficial structures.
Hard-wired stereotypical response to a specific stimulus. All reflexes, except the stretch reflex, involve at least three neurons: the afferent neuron, one or more interneurons, and one or more efferent neurons.
Bending of light rays as they travel from one medium to another.
Focusing deviations from the optimal fixation point of the retina. Myopia (near-sightedness)
regional cerebral blood flow（rCBF）
Neuroradiologic technique that measures blood flow to functionally active brain areas by monitoring a radioactive tracer.
Cochlear membrane that separates the scala media from the scala vestibuli.
Inhibitory neurons in spinal cord that are connected to and inhibited by the collaterals of adjacent motor neurons.
Inhibitory interneurons that are innervated by collaterals from motoneurons and in turn form synapses with the same and adjacent motoneurons to exert inhibition; identified physiologically and by intracellular injection technic.
Involves the transfer of gases among the atmosphere, blood, and body cells and is marked by inhalation and exhalation.
Reticular neurons in the brainstem that regulate the rate and depth of respiration.
See INFERIOR CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLE.
蠅狀體，由蠅狀體連接到大腦及延惱A lateral (larger) subdivision of the inferior cerebellar peduncle composed of a variety of fibres including, but not limited to, olivo-, reticulo-, cuneo-, trigemino-, and dorsal spinocerebellar.
resting membrane potential
Membrane potential of－