Resources for Communication Problems

Tuesday, January 8, 2008



失語症與雅氏二軸 ─ 大腦功能與失語症



Acquired vs. Developmental Aphasia

Aphasia vs. Dysphasia

Aphasia vs. Aphagia

Apraxia vs. Dysarthria

Alexia / Dyslexia

Agraphia / Dysgraphia



Clinical vs. Experimental Aphasiology

Chinese Aphsiology

黃帝內經 (99-26 B.C.) 靈樞。憂恚無言第六十九》: 「黃帝問於少師曰:人之卒然憂恚,而言無音者,何道之塞,何氣出行,使音不彰?願聞其方。少師答曰:咽喉者,水穀之道路也。喉嚨者,氣之所以上下者也。會厭者,音聲之戶也。口唇者,音聲之扇也。舌者,音聲之機也。懸壅垂者,音聲之關也。頏顙者,分氣之所泄也。橫骨者,神氣所使,主發舌者也。故人之鼻,洞涕出不收者,頏顙不開,分氣失也。是故厭小而疾薄,則發氣疾,其開闔利,其出氣易。其厭大而厚,則開闔難,其氣出遲,故重言也。人卒然無音者,寒氣客於厭,則厭不能發,發不能下,致其開闔不致,故無音。黃帝曰:刺之柰何?岐伯曰:足之,上繫於舌,絡於橫骨,終于會厭。兩瀉其血脈,濁氣乃辟。會厭之脈,上絡任脈,取之天突,其厭乃發也。」


Western Tradition of Clinical Aphasiology

Edwin Smith (1822-1862*-1960) Papyrus (17th-27th century BCE)

48 traumatic injury cases
Translation 1930 by James Henry Breasted & Dr. Arno B. Luckhardt

Aristotle (Greek: ριστοτέλης Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC)

Works by Aristotle
On Memory and Reminiscence Written 350 B.C.E

Franz Josef Gall (1758 -1828) and Phrenology

Paul Broca (1824-1880)

Carl Wernicke (1848–1905)

Ludwig Lichtheim (1845–1928)

Hughling Jackson (1834-1911)

Korbinian Brodmann (1868-1918) & 52 Brodmann areas

Donald Olding Hebb (1904-1985)

Norman Geschwind (1926-1984) & behavioral neurology (Disconnection Syndromes 1965 I II)

Aphasia, Brain Mapping, Split Brain and extended issues

Picturing Aphasia

Picturing Aphasia trailer: Google Video

Broca's Aphasia

Broca's Aphasia transcription

Wernicke's Aphasia

Wernicke's Aphasia Transcription

(Juhn Atsushi) Wada Test: Brain Hemisphere Specializations

1949 - Walter Hess, Egas Moniz

Walter Rudolf Hess (1881-1949*-1973)

"for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs"

Antonio Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz (1874-1949*-1955)

"for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses"

1981 - Roger W. Sperry, David H. Hubel, Torsten N. Wiesel

Roger W. Sperry (1913-1981*-1994)

Nobel Lecture: Some Effects of Disconnecting the Cerebral Hemispheres
On Roger Sperry from PBS Online
Probe the Brain
Mapping the Motor Cortex: A History
Part II: Wilder Penfield maps the brain.
Wilder Penfield (1891-1976)
A Map of the Motor Cortex

David H. Hubel (1926-1981*-)

Torsten N. Wiesel (1924-1981*-)

Early Split Brain Research Gazzaniga

Split brain behavioral experiments

Performing Brain Surgery while the patient is awake

Callosal Apraxia and Aphasia

Speech apraxia

Brain Plasticity

Brain control-Monkey

V. R. Ramachandran Lectures

The Uniqueness of the Human Brain

VR Ramachandran - Phantoms in the Brain - 1 of 2.avi

VR Ramachandran - Phantoms in the Brain - 2 of 2.avi

40/40 Vision Lecture: Neurology and the Passion for Art

Roman Jakobson on Aphasia

Metaphor vs. Metonym


2008 Milestones in the History of Aphasia: Theories and Protagonists (Brain Damage, Behaviour & Cognition) by Tesak/Code (Author)

This book surveys the history of aphasia from the earliest mentions of speech and language impairments in ancient times, medieval attempts to understand aphasia, and the momentous events of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries up to the development of modern cognitive neuroscience. It traces the development of theory about and understanding of aphasia, and the role of significant individuals in this history. It aims to be accessible to undergraduates and postgraduates, researchers, teachers and clinicians in psychology, speech and language pathology and therapy, neurology and linguistics.

2008 Language Intervention Strategies in Aphasia and Related Neurogenic Communication Disorders by Roberta Chapey

2007 Aphasia Rehabilitation: The Impairment and Its Consequences by Nadine Martin, Cynthia K. Thompson, and Linda Worrall

2006洪振耀(Gabriel Hong) 羅曼雅可布森(1896-1982)論失語症 Roman Jakobson (1896-1982) on Aphasia 外語學報 3(2006/07) 23-52

2000游雅茹(Ya-Ju Yu);莊慧姿(Huei-Zhi. Zhuang);吳佑佑(Yo-Yo Wu);洪振耀(Gabriel Hong) 精神分裂症病患言談結構中的停頓研究 Pause in Schizophrenic Discourse中華民國聽力語言學會雜誌 15(2000/11) 24-37

1996洪振耀(Gabriel Hong) 傳統中醫聽語病理學發微 A Premise of Speech-Language-Hearing Pathology in Traditional Chinese Medicine聽語會刊 12(1996/12) 99-142

1995洪振耀(Gabriel Hong) 語言治療與音樂治療 Language Therapy and Music Therapy 聽語會刊 11(1995/12) 1-18

1993洪振耀(Gabriel Hong) 二十世紀初法國失語學界記事French Aphasiology at the Beginning of the 20th Century 聽語會刊9(1993/12) 10-26

1981 Contiguity versus similarity paraphasic substitutions in Broca's and in Wernicke's aphasia. Journal of Communication Disorders, Volume 14, Issue 1, January 1981, Pages 1-9. Guido Gainotti, Gabriele Miceli and Carlo Caltagirone

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The present research was carried out to determine whether Jakobson's claim that Broca's aphasic patients emit chiefly semantic paraphasias of the similarity type, whereas Wernicke's aphasic patients produce mainly paraphasic substitutions of the contiguity type, can be supported by data gathered for clinical purposes under controlled conditions. Semantic paraphasias produced by 96 aphasic patients on a standard test of visual naming were taken into account. Three independent judges, blind to aphasia type, classified all responses retained as semantic substitutions into one of the following four categories: those having 1) a strong similarity, 2) a strong contiguity, 3) a mild similarity, and 4) a mild contiguity relation to the correct word. No relationship was found between type of semantic paraphasias and clinical form of aphasia. Furthermore, irrespective of the clinical form of aphasia, aphasics tend to give more similarity substitutions than contiguity substitutions.

1998 Syllabic Constraints in the Phonological Errors of an Aphasic Patient. Brain and Language, Volume 64, Issue 1, August 1998, Pages 83-121. Cristina Romani and Andrea Calabrese

Abstract | Abstract + References | PDF (217 K) |

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The Sonority Dispersion Principle (Clements, 1990) states that the sharper the rise in sonority between the beginning of the syllable and the nucleus, the better the syllable. So far evidence in favour of this principle has been derived mainly from the distributional properties of syllable types and, to a lesser extent, from language acquisition. The case of DB, presented in this study, provides strong evidence that the Sonority Dispersion Principle also applies to an explanation of aphasic errors and revives Jakobson's idea that the same principles of complexity can explain the distribution of syllables, language acquisition, and language loss (Jakobson, 1941, 1968). Although some evidence that sonority constraints aphasic errors has been presented before, this is the first study reporting systematic effects of sonority-based complexity in aphasia.

2001 Does Agrammatic Speech Constitute a Regression to Child Language? A Three-Way Comparison between Agrammatic, Child, and Normal Ellipsis. Brain and Language, Volume 77, Issue 3, June 2001, Pages 340-350. Herman Kolk

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When children are in the process of learning their mother tongue, they show frequent use of nonfinite clauses, even though they produce finite clauses at the same time, thereby demonstrating the availability of the functional domain associated with finiteness. In this study the hypothesis was tested that this behavior results from an overuse of the normal elliptical repertoire that has also been observed in agrammatic aphasia. The purpose of this overuse is prevention of computational overload. In support of the hypothesis it was found that children behaved very similar to aphasics and normal adults with respect to the following parameters: (a) distribution of types of ellipsis, (b) elaboration of ellipses, (c) word order, (d) subject omission, (e) frequency of weak subject pronouns, and (f) verb type (eventivity). The results also support the Jackson/Jakobson regression hypothesis, at least at the grammatical level.

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