腦神經科學 ─ 大腦與心智
Chinese View on Intelligence
漢代董仲舒(179-104 B.C.)《天人三策 舉賢良對策》：「.... 人所得之氣，又有清濁美惡之分，所以人又有智愚賢不肖之別。」
Evolution of Mind
Theory of Mind
Western Studies on IQ
Alfred Binet (1857-1911) & Binet-Simon intelligence scale (1905, 1908, 1911)
Flynn effect in IQ Test
The average IQ scores for many populations were rising at an average rate of three points per decade during the 20th century with most of the increase in the lower half of the IQ range: a phenomenon called the Flynn effect.
James R. Flynn (1934- )
MI (Multiple Intelligence) Theory 1993 (
1943- ) Gardner
Intelligence and Problem Solving in Digital Era
Maximizing Human Potential
Neuronal Proliferation (140-175 days)
Process Growth and Synaptic Formation
Glia & Myelin Formation
Synaptic Connection (175 Days – 4th years of life)
Glia Formation and Synaptic Connection in Adulthood
Functions of Glia cells
Glen Doman The Institutes for The Achievement of Human Potential (Better Baby Institute 1977)
Aging & Dementia
大腦有多量的類澱粉斑（amyloid plaques或senile plaques），神經細胞內有神經纖維叢（neurofibrillary tangles）
2007 Twin Study: Stories by Stacey Richter (Author)
2007 The Evolving Brain: The Known And the Unknown by R. Grant Steen (Author) (Hardcover - Jan 25, 2007)
2007 Origin and Evolution of the Vertebrate Telencephalon, with Special Reference to the Mammalian Neocortex (Advances in Anatomy, Embryology and Cell Biology) by F. Aboitiz (Author), J. Montiel (Author) (Paperback - Sep 14, 2007)
2007 Evolution of Nervous Systems, Four-Volume Set, 1-4 Major reference work, 2007, by Jon Kaas (Editor-in-Chief)
All biology only makes sense when seen in the light of evolution, and this is especially true for the nervous system. All animals have nervous systems that mediate their behaviors, many of them species specific. Yet, these nervous systems all evolved from the simple nervous system of a common ancestor. To understand these nervous systems, we need to know how they vary and how this variation emerged in evolution. Over 100 distinguished neuroscientists have assembled, for the first time, the current state-of-the-art knowledge on how nervous systems evolved throughout the animal kingdom. This four-volume overview is rich in detail and broad in scope, and outlines the changes in brain and nervous system organization that occurred from the first vertebrates to present day fishes, reptiles, birds, mammals, and especially primates, including humans. The basic principles of brain evolution are discussed, as well as mechanisms of change, which involved gene expression and altered the courses of embryonic development. The reader can select from chapters on highly specific topics as well as those providing an overview of current thinking and approaches. This unique major reference promises to become the gold standard for those interested in evolution and in nervous systems.
Also available online via ScienceDirect (2006) – featuring extensive browsing, searching, and internal cross-referencing between articles in the work, plus dynamic linking to journal articles and abstract databases, making navigation flexible and easy. For more information, pricing options and availability visit www.info.sciencedirect.com.
2006 Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation by Michael Selzer (Editor), Stephanie Clarke (Editor), Leonardo Cohen (Editor), Pamela Duncan (Editor), Fred Gage (Editor)
2005 Origins of the Modern Mind by Merlin Donald (Author)
2005 Origin of Mind: Evolution of Brain, Cognition, and General Intelligence by David C Geary (Author)
2005 Brain Damage and Repair : From Molecular Research to Clinical Therapy by T. Herdegen (Editor), J. Delgado-Garcia (Editor)
2004 Mental Evolution in Animals by George John Romanes (Author), Charles Darwin (Author)
1885. With a posthumous essay on instinct by Charles Darwin. Romanes, British biologist, was personal friends with Charles Darwin who had substantial influence on his studies. Despite early strong religious beliefs, Romanes was converted to Darwinism. His work, Mental Evolution in Animals, traces the parallel development of intelligence in the animal world and in man. Contents: The Criterion of Mind; The Structure and Functions of Nerve-Tissue; The Physical Basis of Mind; The Root-Principles of Mind; Explanation of the Diagram; Consciousness; Sensation; Pleasures and Pains, Memory, and Association of Ideas; Perception; Imagination; Instinct; Reason; and Animal Emotions, and Summary of Intellectual Faculties.
2004 Understanding Intelligence in the 21st Century: Journeys in Shadows (Studies in Intelligence Series) by L. V. Scott
2004 Principles of Brain Evolution by Georg F. Striedter (Author)
2003 The Scientific Study of General Intelligence by Helmuth Nyborg
2003 The Clinical Science of Neurologic Rehabilitation by Bruce H. Dobkin (Author)
2003 The Brain: Our Universe Within - Evolution & Perception (DVD - 2003)
2003 Handbook of Neurological Rehabilitation by R.j. Greenwood (Author)
2002 腦,在演化中 Evolving Brains John Morgan Allm 著 / 曹純 譯
2002 John T. Bruer. The Myth of the First Three Years: A New Understanding of Early Brain Development and Lifelong Learning
2001 Evolution (parts 6 & 7): Minds Big Bang/What About God? ~ Liam Neeson (narrator) (DVD - 2001)
2001大腦變奏曲─神經演化故事13章 Defending the Cavewoman: And Other Tales of Evolutionary Neurology原文作者：Harold Klawans譯者：陳振東
"All superficial comparisons to the contrary, Oliver Sacks and I are really quite dissimilar," said Dr. Harold Klawans, in his essay "My Lunch with Oliver." He and Sacks were both neurologists, both with special interests in movement disorders and Parkinson's disease, and both writers. "The brain and how it functions is to Oliver a philosophical issue... I try to ask simple questions." Klawans's questions are not really "simple," but they're about evolution and development instead of philosophy.
In his clinical practice, Klawans thought about the evolution of the brain to try to understand his patients' problems, and vice versa. His theme throughout is that brain development is about windows of opportunity: many things can only be learned in certain periods, and after puberty in particular the brain has been largely "pruned to shape," so that skills like language and music may never be properly acquired.
The cavewoman of the title is the one who stayed home taking care of the babies while Man the Hunter was off spearheading the Ascent of Man (in what Stephen Jay Gould, one of Klawans's favorite writers, calls an "evolutionary just-so story"). Not so, says Klawans: because the window of opportunity for learning language is in childhood, especially early childhood, language must have arisen between mothers and children: "though few defend the Cavewoman, we all speak our mother's tongue." --Mary Ellen Curtin
From Publishers Weekly
Much in the manner of Oliver Sacks, neurologist Klawans (Why Michael Couldn't Hit, etc.) uses stories from his clinical practice as jumping-off points for discussion of how the brain works, and of how and why it evolved as it did. Klawans explains how doctors find out which half of your brain controls your speech, and why they might need to know; how a professor's stroke cost him his ability to read, and how he regained it. Later chapters lay out "how literacy changes the brain" (among other things, it teaches us to use abstract categories) and how mad cow disease alters it (by means of contagious proteins called prions). Bringing in modern European history, Klawans connects an obscure nerve disease to conditions in Nazi-occupied
2000 Evolving Brains (Scientific American Library Paperback) by John Allman (Author) (Paperback - Mar 27, 2000)
1999 CNS Regeneration by Mark H. Tuszynski (Editor), Jeffrey Kordower (Editor)
1997 How Brains Think: Evolving Intelligence, Then and Now (Science Masters Series) by William H. Calvin (Author)
William Calvin, a neurophysiologist and author of The River That Flows Uphill: A Journey from the Big Bang to the Big Brain, attempts to reclaim the study of human consciousness from physicists like Roger Penrose. Physicists, Calvin suggests, reduce the mind to subatomic particles and mathematical equations, whereas those in his specialty see the seat of consciousness and intelligence in higher levels of brain physiology--the neurons, synapses, and cortex. Calvin is a Darwinist who regards the unique level of human consciousness as the product of evolutionary forces that began with the ice ages two million years ago. The human response to this natural threat, he argues, was to develop mental faculties that allowed high-level communication and, thus, cooperation, leading to complex language capabilities and the distinguishing human characteristic of abstract thought. --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.