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Reconstitution of an injured axon. Most prevalent in the peripheral nervous system.
Dorsal flexion of the great toe and fanning of other toes on being stroked on the sole of the foot. Indicating pyramidal tract (upper motor neuron) pathology in adults. Named after French neurologist Joseph Babinski.
Violent flinging movements usually involving one side of the body. Associated with a lesion of the subthalamic nucleus.
Barany caloric test
Clinically undertaken to evaluate vestibular functioning in cases of inner ear disease using the injection of water of different temperatures into the auditory canal. Cold water produces rotatory nystagmus toward the opposite direction. Whereas warm fluid triggers nystagmus toward the injected (ipsilateral) side.
Group of subcortical nuclei (caudate, globus pallidus, and putamen) located within the white matter in each cerebral hemisphere. Important in movement regulation.
Basal plate zone of the embryonic neural tube ventral to the sulcus limitans. Ventral gray columns of the spinal cord and motor centers of the brain develop from this region, which is also called the basal plate.
Also called pes peduncle or crus cerebri. Includes descending motor fibers in the midbrain on each side.
Basal or inferior region of the pons.
Facial paralysis causing paralysis on one side of the face. Paralyzed muscles are pulled toward unaffected side.
Large motor (pyramidal) cells located in the primary motor cortex.
A state of dividing into two branches or divisions.
Human embryo in the 2nd week of gestation.
Referring to two sides of the body.
Mostly refers to cranial nerve motor nuclei that receive innervations from both motor cortices, where each pyramidal tract provides both ipsilateral (minor) and contralateral (stronger) innervations.
Visual field area simultaneously processed in both eyes.
Removal of tissue from the living body, usually for microscopic examination.
Circadian (with a cycle of 24 hr) biologic rhythms regulating body homeostasis such as the sleepwake cycle.
Loss of temporal visual fields for both eyes.
Stage in the 1st week of human development.
Cell resulting from cleavage of a fertilized ovum.
Retinal area, that contains no photoreceptors, located 15° medial to the visual axis and representing the optic nerve (cranial nerve II) fibers exit the retina.
Oxygen-containing fluid that circulates through the heart, arteries, and capillaries.
Physiologic barrier unique to brain arteries that prevents noxious substances in the blood from entering the brain.